Jiný pohled na etnicitu jako na biologický koncept: Posun antropolgie za koncept rasy

Michael S. Billinger

Abstrakt

Montagu psal o rase jako o „nejnebezpečnějším lidském mýtu“ a Lévi-Strauss ji nazval „prvotním hříchem antropologie“. Přestože po celé 20. století vznikaly nové a nové přesvědčivé argumenty, proč by měl být koncept rasy opuštěn, pro antropology, kteří se zabývají klasifikací lidských populací, zůstává rasa významným problémem. Rasová terminologie se stala trvalým průvodcem antropologických počinů, což lze přičíst zejména tomu, že rasa byla historicky vlastním jádrem antropologického výzkumu. I přes konceptuální neadekvátnost rasy se antropologie dosud neposunula za koncept rasy jakožto explanační nástroje pro chápání biologické variability lidstva, neboť za něj dosud nemá konceptuální a/nebo metodologickou náhradu. Tento článek nově analyzuje historickou antropologickou literaturu o etnicitě a interakcí mezi biologií a kulturou jako náhradou za koncept rasy a přetváří ji v kontextu moderního filozofického a psychologického pohledu na variabilitu lidské populace.

Klíčová slova

biokulturní; etnicita; lidská variabilita; fyzická antropologie; rasa

Plný Text:

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https://doi.org/10.5817/SOC2007-4-23