Nekázeň žáků ve třídě

Jiří Mareš

Abstrakt

Přehledová studie je založena na 121 zahraničních pracích z období 1986-2018. Výklad se omezuje se na práce, které pocházejí euroamerického sociokulturního prostředí. Zajímá se o projevy nekázně ve třídě během výuky a to na především základních a středních školách. Studie je strukturována do pěti částí. První část ukazuje, proč je obtížné definovat pojem nekázeň žáků a jak je odborná terminologie neustálená. Jsou též charakterizovány různé typy žákovské nekázně.  Druhá část studie shrnuje faktory, které ovlivňují nekázeň žáků. Patří k nim: zvláštnosti žáka samotného, jeho spolužáků, jeho učitele, školní třídy, interakce mezi učitelem a žáky; zvláštnosti dané školy, školského obvodu, rodinného zázemí žáka, edukačního systému dané země a její školské politiky. Třetí část studie podává přehled postupů, jimiž se dá zjišťovat nekázeň žáků (příklady kvalitativního, kvantitativního a smíšeného přístupu).  Čtvrtá část studie se zamýšlí nad důsledky nekázně žáků. Jedná se o dopad žákovské nekázně na učitele, na žákovy spolužáky a jejich učení, na celkový průběh výuky, na výsledky výuky, na klima dané třídy, na klima dané školy a na celý stát. Pátá, závěrečná část, přibližuje tři koncepční přístupy, které by měly pomoci nekázeň ve třídách řešit: historicky nejstarší přístup staví na učiteli, tj. na trestání a odměňování žáků; další staví na žákovi, jeho sebekontrole a autoregulaci a konečně poslední staví na skupině žáků, školní třídě; na diskusích žáků s učitelem o vhodném chování ve třídě, na skupinovém rozhodování a skupinovém tlaku na neukázněné spolužáky. Studie upozorňuje, že nestačí jen potlačovat či eliminovat nevhodné chování žáků, ale je třeba souběžně rozvíjet i pozitivní chování žáků.

Klíčová slova

žáci, učitelé, nekázeň ve třídě, působící faktory, diagnostika nekázně, důsledky nekázně, řešení nekázně

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