Dominanční hierarchie

Eva Jozífková, Martina Koláčková

Abstrakt

Dominanční hierarchie se vyvinula jako adaptace sociálně žijících živočichů na podmínky prostředí. Postavení v dominanční hierarchii výrazně ovlivňuje život a chování člověka i v dnešních moderních evropských a amerických společnostech. Zde 1) stručně vysvětlíme principy a evoluční pozadí dominanční hierarchie z úhlu pohledu behaviorálních věd, 2) popíšeme rysy dominanční hierarchie u člověka, a 3) uvedeme příklady toho, co určuje hierarchické postavení jedince u člověka, jak toto postavení ovlivňuje život jedince a jak se projevuje v chování.

Struktura dominanční hierarchie, ustavení hierarchického postavení (rank) a omezení daná tímto postavením jsou předvídatelná. Postavení ovlivňuje život jedince v mnoha směrech (reprodukce, komunikace, zdraví, tok informací, vzorce chování). Pokud chceme plně porozumět chování člověka, jeho rozhodnutím a pocitům, musíme brát v úvahu existence dominanční hierarchie mezi jedinci a mezi skupinami jedinců.

Bibliografická citace

Jozífková, Eva – Koláčková, Martina (2020): Dominanční hierarchie. Anthropologia integra, 11(2), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.5817/AI2020-2-7

Klíčová slova

dominanční hierarchie; hierarchie; dominance; submisivita; společnost; uspořádání společnosti; společenská hierarchie; člověk

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