What Shapes the Temperatures of Living Rooms in Three European Regions?

Behavioural Views in Environmentalism

The paper presents results of a study of heating habits (particularly the reported temperature in the living room during the heating season) in three EU regions: Aberdeenshire in Scotland, Brandenburg state in Germany, and South Bohemia in the Czech Republic. Data were collected using a questionnaire study carried out in 2010. There were approximately 500 respondents in each region. Three types of data are analysed: socio-demographics (including gender, age, education, income); housing characteristics (e.g. type, size, insulation, heating system), and attitudes towards energy and environmental issues (perception of climate change and perceived self-efficacy of energy saving). The results show some explanatory power of income, house insulation, age, place of living and self-efficacy on people’s reported living room temperatures. The biggest differences were found, however, between the three regions. Scottish households report the lowest average temperature, Germans higher and Czechs the highest. We also discuss the role of the local climatic conditions and put the results (especially the negligible role of most socio-demographics and housing characteristics) into the framework of theory of social practice and discussions about the limits of traditional sociopsychological ABC models (attitude-behaviour-choice) of pro-environmental behaviours.

Klíčová slova:
energy saving; environmental behaviour; heating; household; temperature; social practices

ABRAHAMSE, Wokje and Linda STEG. “How Do Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Relate to Households’ Direct and Indirect Energy Use and Savings?” Journal of Economic Psychology 30: 711–720. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2009.05.006

ANDERSON, Will, Vicki WHITE, and Andrea FINNEY. 2012. “Coping with Low Incomes and Cold Homes.” Energy Policy 49: 40–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.01.002

BOUZAROVSKI, Stefan. 2014. “Energy Poverty in the European Union: Landscapes of Vulnerability.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment 3: 276–289. https://doi.org/10.1002/wene.89

CRAIG, Tony, J. Gary POLHILL, Ian DENT, Carlos GALAN-DIAZ, and Simon HESLOP. 2014. “The North East Scotland Energy Monitoring Project: Exploring Relationships between Household Occupants and Energy Usage.” Energy and Buildings 75: 493–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.02.038

DAY, Rosie and Russell HITCHINGS. 2011. “‘Only Old Ladies Would Do That’: Age Stigma and Older People’s Strategies for Dealing with Winter Cold.” Health & Place 17: 885–894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.04.011

DIETZ, Thomas, Gerald T. GARDNER, Jonathan GILLIGAN, Paul C. STERN, and Michael P. VANDENBERGH. 2009. “Household Actions Can Provide a Behavioral Wedge to Rapidly Reduce US Carbon Emissions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 18452–18456. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908738106

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. 2014. Commission Staff Working Document: Energy Prices and Costs Report. SWD (2014)20 final/2. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved September 24, 2015 (http://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/20140122_swd_prices.pdf).

Eurostat. (2013). “Heating Degree-Days by NUTS 2 Regions – Annual Data.” Retrieved June 20, 2015 (http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_esdgr_a).

FISCHER, Anke, Vera PETERS, Mirjam NEEBE, Jan VÁVRA, Antoinette KRIEL, Miloslav LAPKA, and Boldizsár MEGYESI, B. 2012. “Climate Change? No, Wise Resource Use Is the Issue: Social Representations of Energy, Climate Change and the Future.” Environmental Policy and Governance 22: 161–176. https://doi.org/10.1002/eet.1585

GILL, Zachary M., Michael J. TIERNEY, Ian M. PEGG, and Neil ALLAN. 2010. “Low-Energy Dwellings: The Contribution of Behaviours to Actual Performance.” Building Research & Information 38: 491–508. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2010.505371

GOTTS, Nick and Imre KOVÁCH. 2010. Climate Change and Local Governance: Alternative Approaches to Influencing Household Energy Consumption. A Comparative Study of Five European Regions. Budapest: Institute of political science of Hungarian Academy of Science. Retrieved January 10, 2015 (http://mek.oszk.hu/09300/09355/09355.pdf).

GRAM-HANSEN, Kirsten. 2010. “Residential Heat Comfort Practices: Understanding Users.” Building Research & Information 38: 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613210903541527

GRAM-HANSEN, Kirsten. 2011. “Understanding Change and Continuity in Residential Energy Consumption.” Journal of Consumer Culture 11: 61–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540510391725

HARGREAVES, Tom. 2011. “Practice-ing Behaviour Change: Applying Social Practice Theory to Pro-Environmental Behaviour Change.” Journal of Consumer Culture 11: 79–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540510390500

HEATH, Yuko, and Robert GIFFORD. 2006. “Free-Market Ideology and Environmental Degradation: The Case of Belief in Global Climate Change.” Environment and Behavior 38: 48–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916505277998

HM GOVERNMENT. 2009. The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan. National Strategy for Climate and Energy. The Stationery Office. Retrieved June 19, 2015 (https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228752/9780108508394.pdf).

HOLGERSSON, Margareta and Urban NORLÉN. 1984. “Domestic Indoor Temperatures in Sweden.” Building and Environment 19: 121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(84)90037-4

HUEBNER, Gesche M., Megan MCMICHAEL, David SHIPWORTH, Michelle SHIPWORTH, Mathieu DURAND-DAUBIN, and Alex SUMMERFIELD. 2013. “Heating Patterns in English Homes: Comparing Results from a National Survey against Common Model Assumptions.” Building and Environment 70: 298–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.08.028

HUNT, D. R., and M. I. GIDMAN. 1982. “A National Field Survey of House Temperatures.” Building and Environment 17: 107–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/0360-1323(82)90048-8

KARJALAINEN, Sami. 2009. “Thermal Comfort and Use of Thermostats in Finnish Homes and Offices.” Building and Environment 44: 1237–1245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.09.002

KEMNA, René. 2014. Average EU building heat load for HVAC equipment. Final Report. Delft: Van Holsteijn en Kemna B.V. (VHK). Retrieved September 24, 2015 (https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/2014_final_report_eu_building_heat_demand.pdf).

KELLY, Scott, Michelle SHIPWORTH, David SHIPWORTH, Michael GENTRY, Andrew WRIGHT, Michael POLLITT, Doug CRAWFORD-BROWN, Kevin LOMAS. 2013. “Predicting the Diversity of Internal Temperatures from the English Residential Sector Using Panel Methods.” Applied Energy 102: 601–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.08.015

KLIMAKTIV. n.d. “CO2 Rechner.” Retrieved December 21, 2014 (http://klimaktiv.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/).

LAPILLONNE, Bruno, Karine POLLIER, and Nehir SAMCI. 2014. Energy Efficiency Trends for Households in the EU. Enerdata. Retrieved June 22, 2015 (http://www.odyssee-mure.eu/publications/efficiency-by-sector/household/household-eu.pdf).

LAZARUS, Richard S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

LUTZ, James and Bruce A. WILCOX. 1990. “Comparison of Self Reported and Measured Thermostat Behavior in New California Houses.” Proceedings of the 1990 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 2: 91–100. Retrieved June 23, 2015 (http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/1990/data/papers/SS90_Panel2_Paper14.pdf).

MOEZZI, Mithra and Kathryn B. JANDA. 2014. “From ‘If Only’ to ‘Social Potential’ in Schemes to Reduce Building Energy Use.” Energy Research & Social Science 1: 30–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.014

SHIPWORTH, Michelle. 2011. “Thermostat Settings in English Houses: No Evidence of Change between 1984 and 2007.” Building and Environment 46: 635–642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.09.009

SHOVE, Elizabeth. 2003. “Converging Conventions of Comfort, Cleanliness and Convenience.” Journal of Consumer Culture 26: 395–418. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026362829781

SHOVE, Elizabeth. 2010. “Beyond the ABC: Climate Change Policy and Theories of Social Change.” Environment and Planning A 42: 1273–1285. https://doi.org/10.1068/a42282

SHOVE, Elizabeth and Gordon WALKER. 2014. “What Is Energy For? Social Practice and Energy Demand.” Theory, Culture & Society 31: 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276414536746

STANÍČEK, Petr. n.d.. “Za Komunistů Jsme Se Měli Lépe…?!” Retrieved December 20, 2014 (http://www.zakomunistu.cz/).

STEG, Linda and Charles VLEK. 2009. “Encouraging Pro-environmental Behaviour: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 29: 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.10.004

ŠČASNÝ, Milan, Jan URBAN, and Iva ZVĚŘINOVÁ. 2013. Environmentally Significant Behaviour in the Czech Republic: Energy, Food and Transportation. Prague: Karolinum Press.

TZB-INFO. n. d. “Vnitřní výpočtové teploty dle ČSN EN 12831 a doporučené relativní vlhkosti vzduchu dle ČSN 06 0210.” Retrieved June 20, 2015 (http://vetrani.tzb-info.cz/tabulky-a-vypocty/28-vnitrni-vypoctove-teploty-dle-csn-en-12831-a-doporucene-relativni-vlhkosti-vzduchu-dle-csn-06-0210).

TWEED, Christopher, Dylan DIXON, Emma HINTON, and Karen BICKERSTAFF. 2014. “Thermal Comfort Practices in the Home and their Impact on Energy Consumption.” Architectural Engineering and Design Management 10: 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/17452007.2013.837243

URBAN, Jan and Milan ŠČASNÝ. 2012. “Exploring Domestic Energy-Saving: The Role of Environmental Concern and Background Variables.” Energy Policy 47: 69–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.04.018

VÁVRA, Jan and Miloslav LAPKA. 2013. “Size Matters: Climate Change Perception and Carbon Footprint of Czech Households.” Culturologia 2: 18–25.

WARDE, Alan. 2005. “Consumption and Theories of Practice.” Journal of Consumer Culture 5: 131–153. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540505053090

WALLENBORN, Grégoire and Harold WILHITE. 2014. “Rethinking Embodied Knowledge and Household Consumption.” Energy Research & Social Science 1: 56–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.009

WALKER, Gordon. 2014. “The Dynamics of Energy Demand: Change, Rhythm and Synchronicity.” Energy Research & Social Science 1: 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.012

WESTKOG, Hege and Tanja WINTHER. 2014. “Electricity Consumption: Should There Be a Limit? Implications of People’s Attitudes for the Forming of Sustainable Energy Policies.” Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development 11: 97–14.

UMWELTBUNDESAMT. 2013. “Endenergieverbrauch der privaten Haushalte.” Retrieved September 24, 2015 (https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/daten/private-haushalte-konsum/energieverbrauch-der-privaten-haushalte).





PDF (English) views


Mobi (English) views


ePub (English) views