Rasializované budoucnosti: Biologismus a měnící se politika identity

David Skinner

Abstrakt

Tento článek zkoumá měnící se roli vědy ve veřejném diskursu o „rase“ a rasismu, přičemž prověřuje tvrzení, že nové biologické výklady lidského života („biologismus“) proměňují prožívání a chápání rozdílů mezi lidmi. V článku se dokazuje, že současný vývoj musí být interpretován v kontextu dvou předchozích období, kdy nedílnou součástí vědy byl nejprve rasismus a potom antirasismus. Rostoucí nadvláda biologismu podnítila jak utopické, tak dystopické předpovědi budoucnosti - podle jedněch dojde k obnově vědeckého rasismu, podle druhých věda konečně odstraní rasové myšlení. Tyto představy jsou sociálně i politicky přitažlivé, ale když je srovnáme s historickou zkušeností rasismu nebo se zjevným směřováním biologismu, tak zjistíme, že nejsou příliš věrohodné. Článek však ukazuje, že k významným změnám přece jen dochází. Nová biologie zpochybňuje existující pojetí příbuznosti, lidské jedinečnosti a rozdělení mezi přírodou a kulturou a proměňuje oblast, v níž se rasa diskutuje. Článek zdůrazňuje některé charakteristiky této nové situace, když zkoumá vznik nových vyjádření rasializované politiky, která využívá biologii při konstrukci identity a zároveň ji považuje za bojové pole.

Klíčová slova

biologismus; biologie; etnicita; identita; politika; rasa; rasismus

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https://doi.org/10.5817/SOC2007-4-53