Vizuální nevědomí: vizuální organizace nevizuálního města

Robert Osman, Pavel Doboš

Abstrakt

This article focuses on the organization of space. The practices through which we grasp and conceive space are the paper’s concern. Practices emanating from the visual organization of space are usually so commonplace for seeing people so that these practices are only poorly reflected in seeing people’s understandings of space. This is why we turn to the experience of visually impaired people. Our understanding of this experience is based on interviews with 16 communication partners from Prague and Brno in 2014 and 2015. We use the poststructuralist approach of philosopher Gilles Deleuze, psychoanalyst Félix Guattari and geographer Marcus Doel to interpret the interviews and we show that visual impairment is not about non-seeing, but about becoming seeing differently – via the non-visual percept. Yet, such practices of seeing space differently are still shaped by the modern collective optical unconscious. Doel asserts that this unconscious has been structured by the medium of film, among others, and the film technique of montage. This has made the optical unconscious obscene. Montage unbound time and space from their firm coordinates and enabled seeing beyond screened frames. This strengthened the incorporeality of spatial experience. Visually impaired people’s practices of seeing and dealing with the optical unconscious accentuate the corporeality of sight again, however. Their practices fuse the seeing via non-visual percept and the optical unconscious into new configurations, demonstrating that no way of seeing can be incorporeal.

Plný Text:

mobi EPUB

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

ABBERLEY, Paul. 1987. „The Concept Of Oppression and The Development of a Social Theory Of Disability.“ Disability, Handicap & Society 2(1): 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02674648766780021

ANDREWS, Sona Karentz. 1983. „Spatial Cognition Through Tactual Maps.“ Pp. 30–40 in Joseph WIEDEL (ed.). Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Maps and Graphics for the Visually Handicapped. Washington: Association of American Geographers.

BIEHL, Joao a Peter LOCKE. 2010. „Deleuze and the Anthropology of Becoming.“ Current Anthropology 51: 317–351. https://doi.org/10.1086/651466

BUTLER, Ruth. 1995. „What You See is What You Get: Urban Information Systems for Visually Impaired People.“ Pp. 5–7 in 10th Urban Change and Conflict Conference. London: Royal Holloway, University of London.

BUTLER, Ruth a Sophia BOWLBY. 1997. „Bodies and Spaces: An Exploration of Disabled People’s Experiences of Public Space.“ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 15(4): 411–433. https://doi.org/10.1068/d150411

BUTLER, Ruth a Hester PARR. 1999. Mind and Body Spaces: Geographies of Illness, Impairment and Disability. London: Routledge.

CHOUINARD, Vera. 1999. „Life at the Margins: Disabled Women’s Explorations of Ableist Spaces.“ Pp. 142–156 in Elizabeth KENWORTHY TEATHER (ed.). Embodied Geographies: Spaces, Bodies and Rites of Passage. London: Routledge.

CHOUINARD, Vera a Ali GRANT. 1995. „On Being Not Even Anywhere Near ‚The Project‘: Ways of Putting Ourselves in The Picture.“ Antipode 27(2): 137–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.1995.tb00270.x

CLARKE, David B. a Marcus A. DOEL. 2005. „Engeneering Space and Time: Moving Pictures and Motionless Trips.“ Journal of Historical Geography 31: 41–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhg.2003.08.022

CLARKE, David B. a Marcus A. DOEL. 2007. „Shooting Space, Tracking Time: The City from Animated Photography to Vernacular Relativity.“ Cultural Geographies 14: 589–609. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474474007082295

CLARKE, David B. a Marcus A. DOEL. 2016. „Cinematicity: City and Cinema after Deleuze.“ Journal of Urban Cultural Studies 3: 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1386/jucs.3.1.3_1

CRESSWELL, Tim. 1996. In Place/Out of Place: Geography, Ideology and Transgression. London: UCL Press.

DEAR, Michael, Sharon Lord GABER, Lois TAKAHASHI a Robert WILTON. 1997. „Seeing People Differently: The Sociospatial Construction of Disability.“ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 15(4): 455–480. https://doi.org/10.1068/d150455

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2000. Film 1: Obraz-pohyb. Praha: Národní filmový archiv.

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2003. Foucault. Praha: Hermann & synové.

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2006. Film 2: Obraz-čas. Praha: Národní filmový archiv.

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2014. Záhyb: Liebniz a baroko. Praha: Hermann & synové.

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2016a. Nietzsche a filozofie. Praha: Hermann & synové.

DELEUZE, Gilles. 2016b. Spinoza: Praktická filozofie. Praha: Oikoymenh.

DELEUZE, Gilles a Félix GUATTARI. 2010. Tisíc plošin. Praha: Hermann & synové.

DOEL, Marcus A. 1995 „Bodies without Organs: Schizoanalysis and Deconstruction.“ Pp. 208–221 in Steve PILE a Nigel THRIFT (eds.). Mapping the Subject. London: Routledge.

DOEL, Marcus A. 1996. „A Hundred Thousand Lines of Flight: A Machinic Introduction to the Nomad Thought and Scrumpled Geography of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari.“ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 14: 421–439. https://doi.org/10.1068/d140421

DOEL, Marcus A. 1999. Poststructuralist Geographies: The Diabolical Art of Spatial Science. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

DOEL, Marcus A. 2000. „Un-glunking Geography: Spatial Science after Dr Seuss and Gilles Deleuze.“ Pp. 117–135 in Mike CRANG a Nigel THRIFT (eds.). Thinking Space. London: Routledge.

DOEL, Marcus A. a David B. CLARKE. 1999. „Virtual Worlds: Simulation, Suppletion, S(ed)uction and Simulacra.“ Pp. 261–284 in Mike CRANG, Phil CRANG a Jon MAY (eds.). Virtual Geographies. Abingdon: Routledge.

DOEL, Marcus A. a David B. CLARKE. 2002. „Lacan: The Movie.“ Pp. 69–93 in Tim CRESSWELL a Deborah DIXON (eds.). Engaging Film: Geographies of Mobility and Identity. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

DOEL, Marcus A. a David B. CLARKE. 2007. „Afterimages.“ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 25: 890–910. https://doi.org/10.1068/d436t

GLEESON, Brendan. 1996. „A Geography for Disabled People?“ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21(2): 387–396. https://doi.org/10.2307/622488

GLEESON, Brendan. 1999. Geographies of Disability. London: Routledge.

GLEESON, Brendan. 2001. „Disability and the Open City.“ Urban Studies 38(2): 251–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980123531

GOLLEDGE, Reginald G. 1993. „Geography and the Disabled: A Survey with Special Reference to Vision Impaired and Blind Populations.“ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 18(1): 63–85. https://doi.org/10.2307/623069

GOODLEY, Dan, Bill HUGHES a Lennard DAVIS. 2012. Disability and Social Theory: New Developments and Directions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137023001

GREGORY, Derek. 1994. Geographical Imaginations. Cambridge: Blackwell.

HALL, Edward. 2000. „‚Blood, Brain and Bones‘: Taking the Body Seriously in the Geography of Health and Impairment.“ Area 32(1): 21–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2000.tb00111.x

HALL, Edward a Robert WILTON. 2017. „Towards a Relational Geography of Disability.“ Progress in Human Geography 41(6): 727–744. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132516659705

HANSEN, Nancy a Chris PHILO. 2007. „The Normality of Doing Things Differently: Bodies, Spaces and Disability Geography.“ Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie 98(4): 493–506. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.2007.00417.x

IMRIE, Rob. 1996. „Ableist Geographies, Disablist Spaces: Towards a Reconstruction of Golledge's ‚Geography and the Disabled‘.“ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21(2): 397–403. https://doi.org/10.2307/622489

KITCHIN, Rob. 1998. „‚Out of Place‘, ‚Knowing One's Place‘: Space, Power and the Exclusion of Disabled People.“ Disability & Society 13(3): 343–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599826678

KITCHIN, Rob. 2008. „Reginald Golledge.“ Pp. 136–142 in Phill HUBBARD, Rob KITCHIN a Gill VALENTINE (eds.). Key Thinkers on Space and Place. London: Sage.

LEY, David. 2000. „Behavioural Geography.“ Pp. 42–45 in Ronald John JOHNSTON, Derek GREGORY, Geraldine PRATT a Michael WATTS (eds.). The Dictionary of Human Geography. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

MASSEY, Doreen. 2005. For Space. London: Sage.

MAY, Todd. 1994. The Political Philosophy of Poststructuralist Anarchism. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

MURDOCH, Jonathan. 2006. Post-Structuralist Geography: A Guide to Relational Space. London: Sage.

NEWMAN, Saul. 2005. Power and Politics in Poststructuralist Thought. Abingdon: Routledge.

OLIVER, Mike. 1990. The Politics of Disablement. London: Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-20895-1

OLIVER, Mike. 1991. „Disability and Participation in the Labour Market.“ Pp. 132–146 in Phillip BROWN a Richard SCASE (eds.). Poor Work: Disadvantage and the Division of Labour. London: Open University Press.

OLIVER, Mike. 1993. „Disability and Dependency: A Creation of Industrial Societies?“ Pp. 49–60 in John SWAIN, Sally FRENCH, Colin BARNES a Carol THOMAS (eds.). Disabling Barriers—Enabling Environments. London: Sage.

OLIVER, Mike. 1996. Understanding Disability: From Theory to Practice. New York: St Martin‘s Press.

OSMAN, Robert a Lucie POSPÍŠILOVÁ. 2016. „Zkušenost bez zraku: příležitost pro reflexi prostorového normativu.“ Gender, rovné příležitosti, výzkum 17(1): 63–76. https://doi.org/10.13060/12130028.2016.17.1.256

OSMAN, Robert. 2019. „Jet pěšky / Geografie ‚vozíčkářů a vozíčkářek‘.“ Pp. 29–67 in Robert OSMAN a Lucie POSPÍŠILOVÁ (eds.). Geografie „okrajem“: každodenní časoprostorové zkušenosti. Praha: Karolinum.

PARK, Deborah C., John P. RADFORD a Michael H. VICKERS. 1998. „Disability Studies in Human Geography.“ Progress in Human Geography 22(2): 208–233. https://doi.org/10.1191/030913298672928786

PHILLIPS, Martin. 2005. Contested Worlds : An Introduction to Human Geography. Aldershot: Ashgate.

PORKERTOVÁ, Hana. 2017. Nevidomá zkušenost: disabilita jako asambláž a vztah mezi tělem, diskurzem a zkušeností. Brno: Masarykova Univerzita. (Disertační práce)

ROBINS, Kevin. 1996. Into the Image: Culture and Politics in the Field of Vision. London: Routledge.

SHAKESPEARE, Tom. 1993. „Re-Presenting Disabled People.“ Disability, Handicap & Society 8(1): 95–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/02674649366780081

SHAKESPEARE, Tom. 1995. „Re-Defining the Disability Problem.“ Critical Public Health 6(2): 4–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581599508409047

SHAKESPEARE, Tom. 2006. Disability Rights and Wrongs. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203640098

SHAKESPEARE, Tom. 2014. Disability Rights and Wrongs Revisited. New York: Routledge.

WOLCH, Jennifer a Michael DEAR. 1989. The Power of Geography: How Territory Shapes Social Life. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

WOLPERT, Julian. 1964. „The Decision Process in Spatial Context.“ Annals of the Association of American Geographers 54(4): 537–558. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1964.tb01783.x

https://doi.org/10.5817/SOC2019-1-33