ZANIKLÝ MEANDR U SEVERNÍHO PŘEDHRADÍ ARCHEOLOGICKÉ LOKALITY POHANSKO U BŘECLAVI

Jan Petřík, Nela Doláková, Slavomír Nehyba, Zuzana Lenďáková, Michaela Prišťáková, Katarína Adameková, Libor Petr, Petr Dresler, Jiří Macháček

Abstrakt

The site is situated in the bottomland near the confluence of Dyje and Morava rivers. The junction area is split by many sides and inactive channels. The human impact (settlement establishment, deforestation and landscape management) is also reflected in the bottomland development. Processes lead to erosion, accumulation of sediments in river beds and changes in vegetation. One of the peaks of the settlement of the studied area can be considered during existence of the Great Moravian Empire when the settlement agglomerations developed directly in the floodplain. The area has been intensively archaeologically studied for a long time. In the context of the ongoing climate change and increasing intensity of floods the relationship between climate, natural conditions and the functioning of the human settlements comes to the forefront of scientific interest. For the reconstruction of the complicated floodplain development a combination of different research methods was used. For direct determination of stratigraphy an excavated transect through the sediments connecting the edge of the settlement (in the area of the so called Northern bailey) on the sand elevation („hrúd“) and lower flood-plain step in the area of presumptive paleomeander has been studied. Direct field documentation and palynological and sedimentological studies and 14C dating method were utilized. These methods have been supplemented by remote sensing methods: Geophysics (ERT, DEMP), Lidar. On their basis a digital relief model (extend of measured area was 54 000 m2) was created as well as a map of conductivity anomalies. The study documented a sequence of extinct riverbeds (a series of fluvial point bars) of various ages at the northern edge of Pohansko. Their stratigraphic position proves the stage when the active channel was eroding the edge of the archaeological site. The sediments stored in previous periods were destroyed by erosion in this space. The aggradation of the floodplain occurred in 14th–16th century. Results of pollen analysis indicate the presence of a mosaic of forested and open landscape of mesophilous alluvial woodlands and open areas. The immediate vicinity of the sedimentary area was not too much affected by agricultural activity at that time. Compared to palynospectra from sediments of the Great Moravian settlement, the deforestation intensity and the proportion of anthropogenic indicators were noticeably lower.

Bibliografická citace

Petřík, J., Doláková, N., Nehyba, S., Lenďáková, Z., Prišťáková, M., Adameková, K., Petr, L., Dresler, P., Macháček, J. (2018). Zaniklý meandr u Severního předhradí archeologické lokality Pohansko u Břeclavi. – Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku, 25, 1–2, 41–48.

Klíčová slova

Pohansko near Břeclav, Holocene, floodplain, sedimentary, geophysiscs, palynology

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Reference

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