PODMÍNKY VZNIKU MOČOVÝCH KAMENŮ
Urinary stones are generally products of pathological crystallization in the urinary tract. Their formation is influenced by many factors, such as genetic predisposition, age, stress, working environment or climate. They consist mainly of calcium oxalates and calcium phosphates. Formation of urinal stones was studied experimentally in laboratory. Solutions supersaturated with respect to the calcium oxalates and calcium phosphates were prepared by mixing stock solutions containing appropriate components (calcium, phosphate and oxalate ions). To simulate the conditions of urinary stones formation in real human urine the pH value of the solutions was adjusted with HCl and NaOH in the rage of 4.0 to 8.5 (pH range of normal human urine). After precipitation of solids, the solutions were sampled and analysed. Thermodynamic models were created to predict the theoretical conditions of urinary calculi formation. The results indicate that pH of solutions directly affects the aqueous speciation and, consequently, the formation of stones in the urinary tract. The comparison of results with human urine composition showed that urine of healthy human can contain higher amount of dissolved phosphates, oxalates or calcium substances than amount necessary for stones formation, but it may not lead to creation of urinary stones.
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