Vliv institucionálního zapojení nevládních organizací na volbu strategií

Aneta Pinková

Abstrakt

The article explores institutional platforms used to incorporate non-governmental groups into the decision making process and the possible impacts of such incorporation on their choice of strategy. The paper starts with an overview of relevant theories and concepts, such as the political opportunities structures, the concept of access points to the political system and, most importantly, the insider – outsider typology of interest groups. The empirical part of the paper focuses on the Czech Republic and the two institutional platforms available to NGOs within its political system: participation in advisory committees and formal commenting procedure. The article further presents a case study of employer and business groups in the Czech Republic, using a scale of institutional incorporation as an independent variable influencing the groups’ strategy choice. The scale roughly indicates the level of the organizations’ institutional incorporation, based on their involvement in both advisory committees and formal commenting procedure. On the basis of the findings from the case study, possible impacts of institutional incorporation on strategy choice are outlined, indicating that the so-called insider strategies are more often used by more incorporated groups. This suggests a continuing relevance of Grant’s insider – outsider typology, which has been questioned by political scientists in recent years. While the article focuses on a relatively narrowly defined category of organizations, the findings also suggest that the role and influence of institutionalized platforms on the overall strategy choice of traditional interest groups should not be ignored by researchers, as it is often the case both in the Czech Republic and internationally.

Bibliografická citace

Pinková, A. (2013). Vliv institucionálního zapojení nevládních organizací na volbu strategií. Středoevropské politické studie, 15(1), 40–53. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2012.1.40

Klíčová slova

NGOs; Non-Governmental Groups; Decision-Making Process; Institutions; Central and Eastern Europe; Czech Republic

Plný Text:

HTML

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Active Citizenship Network (2004): Participation in Policy Making: Criteria for the Involvement of Civic NGOs, Active Citizenship Network, online verze (http://www.fondaca.org/file/Archivio/RappotiDiRicerca/03_Participation_in_Policy_Making_Criteria_for_the_Involvment_Of_Civic_Ngos.pdf), [cit. 30. 7. 2006].

Alemann, U. von (1987): Organisierte Interessen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Opladen, Leske + Budrich.

Balík, S. – Císař, O. – Fiala, P. (2010): Veřejné politiky v České republice v letech 1989-2009, Brno: Centrum pro studium demokracie a kultury.

Bouwen, P. (2002) : A Comparative Study of Business Lobbying in the European Parliament, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers MPIfG Discussion Paper, Köln, Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung, s. 1-41.

Casale, G. (2001): Social Dialogue and Tripartism in Poland: Evolution and Trends. InFocus Programme on Strengthening Social Dialogue, Geneva, International Labour Office, s. 1-23.

Císař, O. – Navrátil, J. – Vráblíková, K. (2011). Staří, noví, radikální: politický aktivismus v České republice očima teorie sociálních hnutí, Sociologický časopis, roč. 47, č. 1, s. 137-167.

Cox, T. – Mason, B. (2000): Interest Groups and the Development of Tripartism in East Central Europe, European Journal of Industrial Relations, roč. 6, č. 3, s. 341-366. https://doi.org/10.1177/095968010063005

Dudley, G. – Richardson, J. (1998): Arenas without rules and the policy change proces: outsider groups and British roads policy, Political Studies, roč. 46, č. 4, s. 727-747. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00164

Eisinger, P. (1973): The conditions of protest behavior in American cities, American Political Science Review, roč. 67, č. 1, s. 11-28. https://doi.org/10.2307/1958525

Fiala, P. -Schubert, K.(2000): Moderní analýza politiky. Uvedení do teorií a metod policy analysis. Praha, Barrister & Principal.

Grant, W. (1989): Pressure Groups, Politics and Democracy in Britain, London, Philip Allen.

Grant, W. (2004): Pressure Politics: The Changing World of Pressure Groups, Parliamentary Affairs, roč. 57, č. 2, s. 408-419. https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsh033

Hadzi-Miceva, K. (2008): Legal and Institutional Mechanisms for NGO-Government Cooperation in Croatia, Estonia, and Hungary, The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law, roč. 10, č. 4, s 43-72.

Héthy, L. (2001): Social Dialog in the Expending World. The Decade of Tripartism in Hungary and Central and Eastern Europe 1988-1999. Report, Brussels, European Trade Union Institute.

Knoepfel, P. - Kissling-Näf, I. (1998): Social Learning in Policy Networks, Policy and Politics, roč.26, č. 3, s. 343-367.

Ladó, M. E. (1994): Tripartizmus és munkaügyi kapcsolatok Közép- és Kelet-Európában, Budapest, Hungarian Institute for Social Research.

McAdam, D. (1999): Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, Chicago, Chicago University Press.

McGrath, C. (2006): The ideal lobbyist: Personal characteristics of effective lobbyists, Journal of Communication Management, roč. 10, č. 1, s. 67-79. https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540610646382

Myant, M. – Slocock, B. – Smith, S. (2000): Tripartism in the Czech and Slovak Republics, Europe-Asia Studies, roč. 52, č.4, s. 723-739.

Organisation Internationale du Travail (1995): ILO Calls for Strengthening of Tripartite Dialogue in Central and Eastern Europe, Actualités, Organisation Internationale du Travail, online text (http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/press-and-media-centre/news/WCMS_008093/lang--fr/index.htm), [cit. 30. 7. 2006].

Ost, D. (2000): Illusory Corporatism in Eastern Europe: Neoliberal Tripartism and Postcommunist Class Identities, Politics & Society, roč. 28, č. 4, s. 503-530. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329200028004004

Padgett, S. (1999): Tripartism Without Corporatism: Organized Interests the State and Public Policy in Postcommunist Eastern Germany, unpublished paper, European Consortium for Political Research, Mannheim.

Padgett, S. (2000): Organizing Democracy in Eastern Germany; Interest Groups in Post-Communist Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Page, E.C. (1999): The insider/outsider distinction: An empirical investigation, British Journal of Politics and Internatinal relations, roč. 1, č. 2, s. 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-856X.00011

Pinková, A. (2011): Zaměstnavatelské a podnikatelské skupiny v ČR: prosazování organizovaných zájmů, Brno, CDK.

Potůček, M. (2007): Česká veřejná politika jako vědní disciplína a jako předmět zkoumání, Teorie vědy/Theory of Science, roč. XVI/XXIX, č. 2., s. 93-118, online text http://martinpotucek.cz/download/articles/ceska_vp.pdf

Potůček, M. a kol. (2005): Veřejná politika, Praha, Sociologické nakladatelství.

Princen, S. – Kerremans, B. (2008): Opportunity Structures in the EU Multi-Level System, West European Politics, roč. 31, č. 6, s. 1129-1146. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380802370484

Reutter, W. (1996): Tripartism Without Corporatism: Trade Unions in Central and Eastern Europe, in: A. Aght, P. Rawlinson - G. Ilonszki (eds.): Parliaments and Organised Interests: The Second Steps, Budapest, Hungarian Centre for Democracy Studies, s. 59-78.

Sabatier, P. A. - Jenkins-Smith, H. C. (1993, eds.): Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy

Coalition Approach, Boulder, Westview Press.

Scharpf, F. (1997: Games real actors play. Actor-centered institutionalism in policy research, Boulder/Cumnor Hill, WestviewPress.

Tarrow, S. (1994): Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, C. (2004): Social Movements, 1768–2004, Boulder, Paradigm Publishers.

Veselý, A. –Nekola, M. (2007, eds.): Analýza a tvorba veřejných politik, Praha, Sociologické nakladatelství 2007. První část - Základy analýzy a tvorby veřejných politik.

https://doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2012.1.40


Copyright (c) 2013 Aneta Pinková

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.