Konflikt v hlasování Poslanecké sněmovny PČR (1993–2013)

Petr Dvořák

Abstrakt

The paper explores the legislative unity of government and opposition blocs in the Czech Chamber of Deputies over a period of twenty years. As voting unity is usually rather low in the Czech Republic, temporarily high concentrations of the respective blocks’ votes are linked to higher rates of conflict between the government and opposition. I use the Rice and UNITY indices to compare average unity scores of individual cabinets and also explorative time series of unity vectors in order to analyse bloc concentration, success rate, and increased conflict. The outcomes are relevant as both a case study and a methodological observation: (1) Broad differences in the logic of interaction are confirmed (e.g. caretaker cabinets show less conflict than standard cabinets). Although no universal trend (e.g. a transition from consensual to conflictual practice) is found, the Czech opposition became more concentrated and resorted to the tactics of serial blocking in the second decade; thus, a major change of behaviour occurred after all. (2) The Rice and UNITY indices correlate considerably; UNITY’s discrimination capacity is not distorted significantly despite the nature of equilibria in the Chamber. Moreover; the UNITY index is able easily to distinguish contested votes which are not detectable by the Rice index alone.

Bibliografická citace

Dvořák, P. (2015). Konflikt v hlasování Poslanecké sněmovny PČR (1993–2013). Středoevropské politické studie, 17(1), 57–87. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2015.1.57

Klíčová slova

Government-opposition Relations, Party Government, Government Dominance, Parliament Voting, Coalition Unity, Czech Republic

Plný Text:

HTML

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Borz, Gabriela (2006): “Determinants of Party Unity in Central Eastern Europe.” CEU Political Science Journal 2006(3): 29–48.

Bowler, Shaun, David M. Farrell a Richard. S. Katz (1999): Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Bütikofer, Sarah a Simon Hug (2008): “Strategic behavior in the Swiss parliament.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, August 2008, on-line (http://www.unige.ch/ses/spo/static/simonhug/sbisp/sbisp. pdf) [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

Carey, John M (2000): “Party Unity in Legislative Voting.” Presentation at American Political Science Associations Conference, Washington, September 2000, on/line (http://www.researchgate.net/publication/2412757_Party_Unity_in_Legislative_Voting/file/9c9605293d09ea8e1b.pdf) [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

Carey, John M (2007): “Competing Principals, Political Institutions, and Party Unity in Legislative Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 92–107, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2007.00239.x.

Carey, John M. (2009): Legislative Voting and Accountability. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Colomer, Josep M. (2001): Political Institutions. Democracy and Social Choice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Crespin, Michael H., David W. Rohde, and Ryan J. Vander Wielen (2013): „Measuring Variations in Party Unity Voting: An Assessment of Agenda Effects.” Party Politics 19(3): 432–457, https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068811407578.

Dahl, Robert A. (ed.) (1965): Political Oppositions in Western Democracies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Döring, Herbert (ed.) (1995): Parliaments and Majority Rule in Western Europe. Mannheim: MZES.

Duverger, Maurice (1965): Political Parties. Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ferejohn, John (1999): “Accountability and Authority: Toward a Theory of Political Accountability.” In: Adam Przeworski, Susan C. Stokes, and Bernard Manin (eds.). Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 131–153.

Fortes, Braulio G. a Irene P. Brihuega (2012): “Testing the quality of democracy: The case of Spain.” European Political Science 11(4): 492–508, https://doi.org/10.1057/eps.2011.48.

Giebler, Heiko (2012): “Bringing Methodology (Back) in: Some Remarks on Contemporary Democacy Measurements.” European Political Science 11(4): 509–518, https://doi.org/10.1057/eps.2011.47.

Giulj, Sylvie (1981): “Confrontation or Conciliation: the Status of the Opposition in Europe.” Government and Opposition 16(4): 476–494, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1981.tb00324.x.

Golombiewski, Robert T. (1958): “A Taxonomic Approach to State Political Party Strength.” Western Political Quarterly 11: 390-420.

Gregor, Kamil a Vlastimil Havlík (2013): „Příčiny jednotnosti hlasování a složení legislativních koalic v Senátu ve srovnání s Poslaneckou sněmovnou v letech 1998–2010.“ Sociologický časopis 49(4): 549–576.

Havlík, Vlastimil (2011): „Česká republika.“ In: Stanislav Balík, Vlastimil Havlík et al., Koaliční vládnutí ve střední Evropě (1990-2010). Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 39–90.

Hix, Simon a Abdul Noury (2011): “Government-Opposition or Left-Right? The Institutional Determinants of Voting in Legislatures” Working Paper, on-line (http://personal.lse.ac.uk/hix/Working_Papers/Hix-Noury-GOorLR-07Mar2013.pdf) [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

Hloušek, Vít a Lubomír Kopeček (2012): Záchrana státu? Úřednické a polopolitické vlády v České republice a Československu. Brno: Barrister & Principal.

Kubát, Michal (2010): Politická opozice v teorii a středoevropské praxi (vybrané otázky). Praha: Dokořán.

Kysela, Jan (2003): “Poslanecká sněmovna v ústavním systému České republiky” In: Lukáš Linek et al (eds.). Volby do Poslanecké sněmovny v roce 2002. Praha: Sociologický ústav Akademie věd ČR, 2–16.

Kysela, Jan (2008): „Parlament a parlamentarismus.“ In: Jindřiška Syllová et al. (eds.). Parlament České republiky. Praha: Linde, 16–49.

Lijphart, Arend (1984): Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lijphart, Arend (1999): Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lyons, Pat, Tomáš Lacina (2009): “An Examination of Legislative Roll-Call Voting in the Czech Republic Using Spatial Models.” Sociologický časopis / Czech Sociological Review 45(6): 1155–1190.

Mair, Peter (2011): Ruling the Void. The Hollowing of Western Democracy. London: Verso.

Mansfeldová, Zdenka (2005): “Executive-Legislative Relations in the Budgeting Process in the Czech Republic.” Sociologický časopis / Czech Sociological Review 41(3): 443–460.

Munck, Gerardo L. (2009): Measuring Democracy. A Bridge between Scholarship and Politics. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

Novák, Miroslav (1997): Systémy politických stran. Úvod do jejich srovnávacího studia. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství.

Novák, Miroslav (2001): Jakou demokracii pro nové demokracie? Brno: Masarykova univerzita, Mezinárodní politologický ústav.

O’Donnell, Guillermo (1991): “Delegative Democracy? East-South System Transformations.” Working paper. Chicago: University of Chicago.

O’Donnell, Guillermo (1998): “Horizontal accountability in New Democracies.” Journal of Democracy 9(3): 112–126, https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1998.0051.

Ozbudun, Ergun (1970): Party Cohesion in Western Democracies: A Casual Analysis. Beverly Hills: Sage Books.

Paskalev, Vesselin (2002): “Institutionalization of Parliamentary Control over the Administration. The House of Commons Select Commities in Comparative Perspective.” LLM Thesis. Budapest: Central European University, on-line (http://www.academia.edu/779351/INSTITUTIONALIZATION_OF_PARLIAMENTARY_CONTROL_OVER_THE_ADMINISTRATION) [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

Prata, Adriana (2006): “Government Domination, Consensus or Chaos? A Study of party Discipline and Agenda Control in National Legislatures [online].” Dissertation thesis. San Diego: University of California, on-line (https://escholarship.org/uc/item/ 8db7g012#page-1) [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

PSP ČR (2014): Data Poslanecké sněmovny a Senátu. Odbor informatiky Kanceláře Poslanecké sněmovny, on-line (http://www.psp.cz/sqw/hp.sqw?k=1300 [cit. 13. 2. 2014].

Rice, Stuart A. (1925): “The Behavior of Legislative Groups: A Method of Measurement.” Political Science Quarterly 40(1): 60–72, https://doi.org/10.2307/2142407.

Sieberer, Ulrich (2006): “Party Unity in Parliamentary Democracies: A Comparative Analysis.” The Journal of Legislative Studies 12(2): 150–178, https://doi.org/10.1080/13572330600739413.

Skjæveland, Asbjørn (1999): “A Danish Party Cohesion Cycle.” Scandinavian Political Studies 22(2): 121–136, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9477.00008.

Stokes, Susan C. (1999): “What Do Policy Switches Tell Us about Democracy?” In: Adam Przeworski, Susan C. Stokes a Bernard Manin (eds.): Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 98–130.

Wintr, Jan (2010): Česká parlamentní kultura. Praha: Auditorium.

https://doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2015.1.57


Crossref Cited-by (1)

Služba reprezentuje výstupy citací nakladatelů zapojených do systému Cited-by (rozšířená služba Crossref).

1. Polarizovaná politika?
Eva Lebedová
ISBN 978-80-244-5209-8  rok: 2017  
https://doi.org/10.5507/ff.17.24452098



Copyright (c) 2015 Petr Dvořák

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.