Potenciál využití soukromých vojenských a bezpečnostních společností nevládními organizacemi

Vendula Nedvědická


The paper deals with private military and security companies (PMSCs) providing their services for non-governmental organisations (NGOs). It includes a brief overview of the security environment from 1990 and how PMSCs have developed since then. There is also an analysis of the motivations behind the NGOs’ decisions to use the services of PMSCs and of cases when their services were used in practise. The paper attempts to explain the basis of the co-operation between these two parties during humanitarian operations and explores services provided by the PMSCs to NGOs. The author also considers the key prerequisites for successful co-operation between these two parties, as well as the other options, if any, which are available to NGOs in the area of security.

Bibliografická citace

Nedvědická, V. (2013). Potenciál využití soukromých vojenských a bezpečnostních společností nevládními organizacemi. Středoevropské politické studie, 15(2–3), 149–174. doi:https://doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2013.23.149

Klíčová slova

Private Military and Security Companies; Non-Governmental Organisations

Plný Text:



Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Abiew, F. K., „NGO (2003): Military Relations in Peace Operations, in: Carey, H. F. – Richmond, O. P. (eds.): Mitigating Conflict: The Role of NGOs, London, Frank Cass Publishers.

Alger, Ch. F. (2005): Expanding Involvement of NGOs in Emerging Global Governance, in: Richmond, O. P. – Carey, H. F. (eds.): Subcontracting Peace: The Challanges of the NGO Peacebuilding, Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate.

Anders, H. (2007): The UN Process on Small Arms: All Is Not Lost, Arms Control Association, http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2007_03/Anders (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

Atassi, B. (2012): Caught between arms and politics, Al Jazeera. http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2010/08/20108199227928620.html (cit. 17. 11. 2012).

Avant, D. D (2004): The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117807077000

Avant, D. D. (2007): NGOs, Corporations and Security Transformation in Africa, International Relations, roč. 21, č. 2, s. 143–161.

BBC News: Q&A: Who are Somalia’s al-Shabab?, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15336689 (cit. 20. 11. 2012).

Beuns, S. P. (2007): Warriors for the Working Day: Private Military Firms in Conflict, Journal of Global Change and Governance roč. 1, č. 1, s. 1–23.

Boemcken, M. (2007): Liaisons Dangereuses: The Cooperation between Private Security Sompanies and Humanitarian Aid Agencies, in: (Järger, T. – Kümmel, B. (eds.): Private Military and Security Companies: Chances, Problems, Pitfalls and Prospects, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Brayton, S. (2002): Outsourcing War: Mercenaries and the Privatisation of Peacekeeping, Journal of International Studies, roč. 55, č. 2, s. 303–329.

Bryans, M. – Jones, B. D. – Stein, J. G. (1999): Mean Times: Humanitarian Action in Complex Political Emergencies – Stark Choices, Cruel Dilemmas: Report of the NGOs in Complex Emergencies Project, Toronto, Program on Conflict Management and Negotation, Center for International Studies, University of Toronto.

Buchanan, C. – Muggah, R. (2005): No Relief: Surveying the Effects of Gun Violence on Humanitarian and Development Personnel, Center for Humanitarian Development, http://www.seesac.org/sasp2/english/publications/1/Impact/5_SALW_Impact.pdf (cit. 8. 11. 2012).

Bureš, O. – Nedědická, V. (2011a), Historie využívání soukromých vojenských sil, Vojenské rozhledy roč. 52, č. 3, s. 76–93.

Bureš, O. – Nedědická, V. (2011b). Soukromé vojenské společnosti: Staronoví aktéři mezinárodního politického systému, Plzeň: Aleš Čeněk

Buzatu, A-M. – Buckland, B.S. (2012): Private Military & Securrity Companies: Future Challanges in Security Governance, DCAF Horizon 2015 Working Paper no. 3., Geneva, The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Byman, D. (2011): Uncertain Parameters: NGOs and the Military, Survival, roč. 43, č. 2, s. 97–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/713660351

CARE International, History, http://www.care-international.org/History/ (cit. 5. 11. 2012).

Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. DCAF, International Code of Conduct for Provate Security Service Providers, http://www.dcaf.ch/Project/International-Code-of-Conduct-for-Private-Security-Service-Providers (cit. 22. 11. 2012).

Cockayne, J. (2006): Commercial Security in Humanitarian and Post-Conflict Settings: An Exploratory Study, New York: International Peace Academy, http://www.ipinst.org/media/pdf/publications/commercial_security_final.pdf (cit. 22. 11. 2012).

Coll, S. (2012): Looking for Mullah Omar, The New Yorker, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/01/23/120123fa_fact_coll (cit. 17. 11. 2012).

Deschamps, S. (2005): Towards the use of the Private Military Companies in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Peace Operations Training Institute.

Dupuy, P.-M. – Vierucci, L. (2008): NGOs in International Law: Efficiency in Flexibility?, Northampton, Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Ebo, A. (2008): Private actors and the Governance of Security in West Africa, in: Andrew, A. – Baker, D.-P. – Caparini, M. (eds.): Private Military and Security Companies, policies and civil-military relations, New York, Routledge.

Egeland, J. – Harmer, A. – Stoddard, A. (2011): To Stay and Deliver: Good practice for humanitarians in complex security envionments, United Nations, http://www.dgvn.de/fileadmin/user_upload/menschl_entw/FKP/Stay_and_Deliver_Feb_17_1_.pdf (cit. 4. 11. 2012).

Engler, Y. (2010), NGO Ties to Private Security Companies, Dissident Voice, http://dissidentvoice.org/2010/08/ngo-ties-to-private-security-companies/(cit. 19. 11. 2012).

European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations, Article 1, Strasbourg, 24.IV.1986.

Fassin, D. – Pandolfi, M. (2012): Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Intervensions, Brooklyn, Zone Books.

G4S, NGOs, http://www.g4s.co.ke/en-KE/What%20we%20do/Sectors/Government/NGOs/ (cit. 19. 11. 2012).

Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (2004): Private Military Firms, Geneva, DCAF.

Ghebali, V.-Y. (2008): The United Nations and the Dilemma of Outsourcing Peacekeeping Operation, in: Bryden, A. – Caparini, M. (eds.): Private Actors and Security Governance, Geneva, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Holmqvist, C. (2005): Private Security Companies: The Case for Regulation, Policy Paper No. 9. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

ICRC, The Fundamental Principles of the Red Cross: commentary, http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/fundamental-principles-commentary-010179.htm (cit. 20. 11. 2012).

InterAction (2007): InterAction US Civilian–Military Guidelines, http://www.interaction.org/document/interaction-us-civilian-military-guidelines-july-2007 (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

InterAction (2007): InterAction US Civilian–Military Guidelines, http://www.interaction.org/document/interaction-us-civilian-military-guidelines-july-2007 (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

International Committee of the Red Cross (2004): The ICR to Expand Contratcs with Private Military and Security Companies, http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/63he58.htm (cit. 13. 11. 2012).

International Committee of the Red Cross, History, http://www.icrc.org/eng/who-we-are/history/index.jsp (cit. 5. 11. 2012).

Isenberg, D. (2009), Outsourcing Peacekeeping, CATO Institute, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/outsourcing-peacekeeping (cit. 4. 11. 2012).

Jelinek, E. (2009): NGO Relations with the Government and Communities in Afghanistan, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, č. 42, http://www.odihpn.org/humanitarian-exchange-magazine/issue-42/ngo-relations-with-the-government-and-communities-in-afghanistan (cit. 19. 11. 2012).

Jurriaans, K-J. (2012): U.N. Increasingly Reliant on Private Security Contractors, Inter Press Service, http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/07/u-n-increasingly-reliant-on-private-security-contractors/ (cit. 2. 11. 2012).

Keen, D. J. (2008): Complex Emergencies, Cambridge, Polity Press.

Ku, Ch. – Cáceres, J. (2003): Neutrality and the ICRC Contributions to Contemporary Humanitarian Operations, in: Carey, H. F. – Richmond, O. P. (eds.): Mitigating Conflict: The Role of NGOs, London, Frank Cass Publishers.

Laipson, E. B.: Can the USG and NGOs Do More?: Information-Sharing in Conflict Zones, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol49no4/USG_NGOs_5.htm (cit. 20. 11. 2012).

Lawry, Lynn (2009, ed.): Guide to Nongovernmental Organizations for the Military: A primer for the military about private, voluntary, and nongovernmental organizations operating in humanitarian emergencies globally, The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM), Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences (USUHS), International Health Division, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), U.S. Department of Defense, http://www.dmrti.army.mil/documents/NGO_Guide_for_the_Military%20sflb%20ashx.pdf (cit. 4. 11. 2012).

Leander, A. (2005): The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies, Journal of Peace Research, roč. 42, č. 5, s. 605–622. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343305056237

Lewis, D. J. (2007): Management of Non-Governmental Development Organisations, New York, Routlege, 2007.

Lilly, D. (2000): The Privatization of Security and Peacebuilding: A Framework for Action, London, International Alert.

Mandel, R. (2001): The Privatization of Security, Armed Forces and Society, roč. 28, č. 1, s. 129–151.

Margesson, R. – Dagne, T. – Hanrahan, CH. E. (2012, eds.): Horn of Africa Region: The Humanitarian Crisis and International Response, Congressional Research Service: Report for Congress, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42046.pdf (cit. 17. 11. 2012).

Mathews, J. T. (1997): Power Shift, The Foreign Affairs, roč. 76, č. 1, s. 50–66.

McGrann, J. – Johnstone, M. (2006): The Power Shift and the NGO Credibility Crisis, The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law, roč. 8, č. 2, s. 65–77.

Mears, E. S. (2009): Private Military and Security Companies and Humanitarian Action, Security Management Initiative.

Montreux Document on Pertinent International Legal Obligations and Good Practices for States related to Operations of Private Military and Security Companies during Armed Conflict. 17 September 2008. Preface 8, http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0996.pdf (cit. 19. 11. 2012).

Ostensen, A. G. (2009): Outsourcing Peace? The United Nations’s Use of Private Security and Military Companies, Saarbrücken, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.

Ostensen, A. G. (2012): UN Use of Private Military and Security Companies: Practices and Policies, Geneva, The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Paper 3.

Perito, R. M. (2007, ed.): Guide for Participants in Peace, Stability, and Relief Operations, Washington D.C., United States Insitute of Peace Press.

Perrin, B. (2008): Humanitarian Assistance and the Provate Security Debate: An International Humanitarian Law Perspective, On the Edges of Conflict, Ottawa, Canadian Red Cross, http://www.croixrouge.ca/cmslib/general/oteoc_ben_perrin.pdf (cit. 22. 11. 2012).

Perrin, B. (2009): Humanitarian Organizations & The Private Security Debate: Implications for International Humanitarian Law, http://www.isisc.org/portal/images/stories/PDF/Paper%20Perrin.pdf (cit. 15. 11. 2012)

Rewards for Justice, Wanted Information leading to the location of Mullah Omar Up to $10 Million Reward, http://www.rewardsforjustice.net/english/index.cfm?page=MullahOmar (cit. 17. 11. 2012).

Schreier, F. – Caparini, M. (2005): Privatising Security: Law, Practice and Governance of Private Military and Security Companies, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Occasional Paper No. 6., Geneva, DCAF.

Schwartz, M. (2011): Department of Defense Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background and Analysis, Washington D.C., Congressional Research Service.

Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, Participating States of the Montreux Document, http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intla/humlaw/pse/parsta.html (cit. 21. 11. 2012).

Singer, P. W. (2003): Peacekeepers Inc., Brookings Institution. Policy Review, http://www.brookings.edu/articles/2003/06usmilitary_singer.aspx (cit. 4. 12. 2012).

Singer, P. W. (2005): Outsourcing War, Foreign Affairs, roč. 84, č. 2, s. 119–120.

Singer, P. W. (2006): Humanitarian principles, private military agents: some implications of the privatised military industry for the humanitarian community, in: Wheeler, V. – Harmer, A. (eds.): Resetting the Rules of Engagement: Trends and Issues in Military–Humanitarian Relations, London, HPG Report 22.

Singer, P. W. (2007): Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatised Military Industry, Ithaca and London, Coronell University Press.

Spearin, Ch. (2000): A Private Security Panacea? A Response to Mean Times on Securing the Humanitarian Space, Second Annual Graduate Student Seminar, Canadian Centre for Foreign Policy Development, http://www.sandline.com/hotlinks/Chris_Spearin-en.html (cit. 19. 11. 2012).

Spearin, Ch. (2007): Humanitarian Non-Governmental Organizations and International Private Security Companies: The “Humanitarian” Challenges of Moulding a Marketplace, Geneva: Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces,

Stoddard, A. – Harmer, A. – DiDomenico, V.(2009): Private security contracting in humanitarian operations, HPG Polici Brief 33, http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/3735.pdf (cit. 4. 11. 2012).

Stoddard, A. – Harmer, A. – Haver, K. (2011): Aid Worker Security Report 2011, Humanitarian Outcomes, http://www.humanitarianoutcomes.org/resources/AidWorkerSecurityReport20112.pdf (cit. 4. 11. 2012).

Stohl, R. – Hogendoorn, E. (2012): Stopping the Destructive Spread of Small Arms How Small Arms and Light Weapons Proliferation Undermines Security and Development, Center for American Progress, http://www.muntr.org/v4/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Center.pdf (cit. 13. 11. 2012).

The Fund for Peace, The Failed States Index, http://www.fundforpeace.org/global/?q=fsi, http://www.relooney.info/SI_Expeditionary/Post-Conflict-Economic-Development_73.pdf (cit. 19. 11. 2012).

The Independent (2008): ArmorGroup sold to G4S after sharp fall in profits, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/armorgroup-sold-to-g4s-after-sharp-fall-in-profits-799044.html (cit. 7. 11. 2012).

The Intenrational Committee of the Red Cross, Code of Conduct, http://www.ifrc.org/en/publications-and-reports/code-of-conduct/(cit. 7. 11. 2012).

The International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers Signatory Companies, http://www.icoc-psp.org/uploads/Signatory_Companies_-_October_2012_-_Composite_List_SHORT_VERSION.pdf (cit. 22. 11. 2012).

The UN Refugee Agency, 1.3 The Security Triangle (Acceptance, Protection, Deterrence), http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/shimin/oda_ngo/shien/kiki_ws05/pdfs/kiki_ws05_0502.pdf (cit. 10. 11. 2012).

The World Bank, Defining Civil Society, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/CSO/0,,contentMDK:20101499~menuPK:244752~pagePK:220503~piPK:220476~theSitePK:228717,00.html (cit. 3. 11. 2012).

United Nations (2009): Draft International Convention on the Regulation, Oversight and Monitoring Of Private Military and Security Companies, http://mgimo.ru/files/121626/draft.pdf (cit. 2. 11. 2012).

United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, Small Arms, http://www.un.org/disarmament/convarms/SALW/ (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

United States Government Accountability Office (2006): Darfur Crisis: Progress in Aid and Peace Monitoring Threatened by Ongoing Violence and Operational Challanges, GAO-7-09, http://www.gao.gov/assets/260/253141.html (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

Vaux, T. – Seiple, Ch. – Nakano, G. – Brabant, K. (2002): Humanitarian Action and Private Security Companies: Opening the Debate, London, International Alert.

Vedder, A. (2007): NGO Involvement in International Governance and Policy: Sources of Legitimacy, Netherlands, Mrtinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.

Wallacher, H., – Harang, A. (2011): Small, But Lethal – Small Arms Ammunition and the Arms Trade Treaty, PRIO, http://controlarms.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Small-but-Lethal-Small-Arms-Ammunition-and-the-Arms-Trade-Treaty.PRIO.pdf (cit. 18. 11. 2012).

Wodarg, W. (2008): Private military and security firms and the erosion of the satet monopoly on the use of force, Report: Council of Europe, Political Affairs Committee, http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc08/EDOC11787 (cit. 18. 11. 2012).


Copyright (c) 2013 Vendula Nedvědická

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.