The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.

Lubomír Kopeček

Abstrakt

This paper focuses on the far right with emphasis on summing up some of its more widespread definitions, evaluating the reasons for classifying it as a distinctive family of parties, and comparing of the Western European and (post-Communist) Central European far right. The text presents the theories of Piero Ignazi, Hans-Georg Betz, Cas Mudde, and other authors. The best working definition of the contemporary far right may be the four-element combination of nationalism, xenophobia, law and order, and welfare chauvinism proposed for the Western European environment by Cas Mudde. This concept allows for a basic ideological classification within a unified party family, despite the heterogeneity of the far right parties. Comparison of Central European far right parties with those of Western Europe shows that these four elements are present in Central Europe as well, though in a somewhat modified form, despite differing political, economic, and social influences.

Bibliografická citace

Kopeček, L. (2007). The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.. Středoevropské politické studie, 9(4), 280-293. Získáno z https://journals.muni.cz/cepsr/article/view/4400

Klíčová slova

Far right; Law and order; Nationalism; Silent counter-revolution; Welfare chauvinism; Western and Central Europe; Xenophobia;

Plný Text:

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Backes, Uwe – Jesse, Eckhard (1993): Politischer Extremismus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bonn: Bundeszetrale für politische Bildung.

Benda, Lukáš (2002): Republika Maďarsko, in: Fiala, Petr – Holzer, Jan – Strmiska, Maxmilián a kol.: Politické strany ve střední a východní Evropě. Brno: Mezinárodní politologický ústav, pp. 223 – 245.

Betz, Hans-Georg (1993): The New Politics of Resentment: Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe. Comparative Politics, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 413 – 427.

Betz, Hans-Georg (2004): Exclusionary Populism in Western Europe in the 1990s and Beyond. A Threat to Democracy and Civil Rights? United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Identities, Conflict and Cohesion Programme Paper, No. 9.

Beyme, Klaus von (1985): Political Parties in Western Democracies. Aldershot: Gower Press.

Brug, Wouter van – Fennema, Meindert – Tillie, Jean (2000): Anti-immigrant Parties in Europe: Ideological or Protest Vote? European Journal of Political Research. Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 77 – 102.

Brug, Wouter Van der - Fennema, Meindert (2003). Protest or Mainstream? How the European anti-immigrant parties have developed into two separate groups by 1999. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 55-76.

Feldman, Matt (2006): Nazism, in: Blamires, Cyprian (ed.): World Fascism, Vol. 2, Santa Barbara – Denver – Oxford: ABC-CLIO, pp. 455 – 459.

Fennema, Meindert (1997): Some Conceptual Issues and Problems in the Comparison of Anti-imigrant Parties in Western Europe. Party Politics, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 473 – 492.

Fritzsche, Klaus von (1977): Faschistmustheorien – Kritik und Perspektiven, in: Neumann, Franz von (hrsg.): Handbuch Politischer Theorien und Ideologien. Baden-Baden: Rowohlt, pp. 467 – 528.

Griffin, Roger (2000): Interregnum or Endgame? Radical Right Thought in the 'Postfascist' Era. The Journal of Political Ideologies, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 163 – 178.

Griffin, Roger (2006): Myth, in: Blamires, Cyprian (ed.): World Fascism, Vol. 2, Santa Barbara – Denver – Oxford: ABC-CLIO, pp. 446 – 447.

Heywood, Andrew (2005): Politické ideologie. Praha: Eurolex Bohemia.

Hloušek, Vít (2002): Republika Slovinsko, in: Fiala, Petr – Holzer, Jan – Strmiska, Maxmilián a kol.: Politické strany ve střední a východní Evropě. Brno: Mezinárodní politologický ústav 2002, s. 382 – 399.

Holsteyn Van Joop (2001): Neither Threat Nor Challange. Right-wing extremism in the Netherlands. Prepared for presentation at the ECPR workshop Democracy and the New Extremist Challenge in Europe 6-11 April 2001, Grenoble; availible - http://www.extremismus.com/texte/eurex7.pdf (accessed 10 August 2007).

Hooghe, Liesbet – Marks, Gary – Wilson, Carole (2002): Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration? Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 965 – 989.

Ignazi, Piero (1992): The Silent Counter-Revolution. Hypotheses on the Emergence of Extreme Right-Wing Parties in Europe. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 22, No. 1 – 2, pp. 3 – 34.

Ignazi, Piero (1995): The Re-emergence of the Extreme Right in Europe. Reihe Politikwissenschaft, Institut für Höhere Studien, 1995, No. 21.

Ignazi, Piero (1996): New Challanges: Post Materialism and the Extreme Right. Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones, Estudios/Working Paper, No. 91.

Ignazi, Piero (2003): Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Inglehart, Ronald (1971): The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 4, pp. 991 – 1017.

Inglehart, Ronald (1990): Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kitschelt, Herbert (1994): The Transformation of European Social Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kitschelt, Herbert (2006): Movement Parties, in: Katz, Richard – Crotty, Wiliam (eds.): Handbook of Party Politics. London: Sage, pp. 279 – 290.

Kopeček, Lubomír (2007): Politické strany na Slovensku. Brno: Centrum pro studium demokracie a kultury.

Kubát, Michal (2007): Teorie antisystémové strany. Politologický časopis, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 110 – 123.

Luther, Kurt Richard (2000): Austria: A Democracy under Threat from the Freedom Party? Parliamentary Affairs, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 426 – 442.

Mareš, Miroslav (2003): Pravicový extremismus a radikalismus v ČR. Brno: Barrister & Principal.

Mareš, Miroslav (2006): Transnational Networks of Extreme Right Parties in East Central Europe: Stimulus and Limits of Cross-border Cooperation. 2006. Paper prepared for the 20th IPSA World Congress Fukuoka, 9-13 July 2006 - availible http://ispo.fss.muni.cz/uploads/2download/fukuoka/Mares.pdf (accessed 10 August 2007).

Minkenberg, Michael (2002): The Radical Right in Postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe: Comparative Observations and Interpretations. East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 335 – 362.

Mudde, Cas (2000a): The Ideology of the Extreme Right. Manchester – New York: Manchester University Press.

Mudde, Cas (2000b): Stranická rodina: rámcová analýza. Politologická revue, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2000, pp. 78 – 93.

Norris, Pippa (2005): Radical Right. Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O´Sullivan, Noël (1995): Fašismus. Brno: Centrum pro studium demokracie a kultury.

Ramet, Sabrina (1999): Defining the Radical Right. Values and Behaviors of Organized Intolerance in Post-communist Central and Eastern Europe, in: Ramet, Sabrina (ed.): The Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe since 1989. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 3 – 28.

Sartori, Giovanni (1976): Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schedler, Andreas (1996): Anti-Political-Establishment Parties. Party Politics, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 291 – 312.

Sitter, Nick (2002): Opposing Europe: Euro-scepticism, Opposition and Party Competition. Sussex European Institute: SEI Working Paper No. 56 – http://www.sussex.ac.uk (accessed 10 August 2007).

Strmiska, Maxmilián (2001): Protipřistěhovalecké xenofobní strany v evropském kontextu. Středoevropské politické studie, Vol. 3, No. 3, - http://www.cepsr.com (accessed 10 August 2007).

Szczerbiak, Aleks - Taggart, Paul (2004): Contemporary Euroscepticism in the Party Systems of the European Union Candidate States of Central and Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Reasearch. Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 1 – 27.

Taggart, Paul - Szczerbiak, Aleks (2002): The Party Politics of Euroscepticism in EU Member and Candidate States. SEI Working Paper No. 51 – http://www.sussex.ac.uk (accessed 10 August 2007).

Tarchi, Marco (2003): The political culture of the Alleanza nazionale: an analysis of the party´s programmatic documents (1995 – 2002). Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 8. No. 2, pp. 135 – 181.



Copyright (c) 2007 Lubomír Kopeček

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.