Prezidentské voľby na Slovensku. Komunikácia kandidátov v prezidentskej kampani na Slovensku

Andrej Školkay

Abstrakt

This article deals with the causes of an unexpected outcome of the second direct presidential elections in Slovakia in April 2004. Firstly, it analyses the role of the President in political system of Slovakia. It is asserted that although Slovakia is a parliamentary Republic, there is still importal room for the role of the President. Secondly, macro-context of elections is discussed. In particular, this part deals with the selection and self-nomination of presidential hopefulls. It was pointed out that according to opinion polls the strongest political party, Smer, did not nominate its own candidate, but, instead, after some hesitation, supported to be President Ivan Gašparovič. In the third part, political biographies of major - initially twelve - presidential candidates were presented. In the fourth part, campaign of major candidates was described and analysed. This analysis included their main slogans, main sources of political or civic support, main symbols as well as main arguments used and main communication tools utilized in the campaign. In the fifth part, campaign before the second round of parliamentary elections was discussed. The causes of success and failures of major candidates were discussed in the sixth part. In brief, Gašparovič success owed in main part to mistakes of his major competitors, and to his well-chosen rhetoric in public television discussions. Eduard Kukan, the most popular candidate throughout the most part of the campaign, failed due many reasons discussed in the text. Vladimír Mečiar made major mistake in his public appearances in two crucial television debates. In conclusion, the lesson learned is that political marketing does not guarantee sucsess. Or perhaps more correctly, but also very simplified, all effort can be lost in a few hours in television discussion.

Bibliografická citace

Školkay, A. (2004). Prezidentské voľby na Slovensku. Komunikácia kandidátov v prezidentskej kampani na Slovensku. Středoevropské politické studie, 6(2–3). Získáno z https://journals.muni.cz/cepsr/article/view/4042

Klíčová slova

President; Slovakia; Elections; Campaign

Plný Text:

RTF HTML

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Budinský, Libor (2004): Trinásť prezidentov. Bratislava: Ikar.
Gyárfášová, Oľga a Vladimír Krivý (2004, 23. 4.): Pohľad späť: od referenda k novému prezidentovi. Sme, s. 15.
Haulík, Pavel (2004, 27. 3.): Šance občianskych kandidátov sú nízke. Pravda, s. 13.
Kaliská, Gabriela a Vladimír Jancura (2004, 19. 4.): Gašparovič: Nič sa nedá zobrať späť. Pravda, s. 3.
Kodoňová Miloslava (2004): ONESKORENÁ SEBAREFLEXIA STV. http://www.mediaportal.sk/detail/?c=2&i=1477.
Leško, Marián (2004, 23. 2.): Ficov kandidát Gašparovič. Sme, s.12.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004a, 19. 4.): Voľby sú morálnou porážkou koalície. Pravda, s.9.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004b, 29. 3.): PROFIL: Ľubomír Roman
http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567471.txt.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004c, 29. 3.): PROFIL: Martin Bútora {http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567420.txt}.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004d, 29. 3.): PROFIL: Ivan Gašparovič http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567264.txt.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004e, 29. 3.): PROFIL: Eduard Kukan
http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567109.txt.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004f, 29. 3.): PROFIL: František Mikloško
http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567384.txt.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004g, 29. 3.): PROFILY: ostatní kandidáti
{http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080567521.txt}.
Marušiak, Juraj (2004h, 29. 3.): Veľkým“ kandidátom sa minuli „veľké“ témy (prezidentské voľby primárne ako súboj strán) http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1080565999.txt.
Médiaportál (2004, 4. 20): O prezidentskej kampani v slovenských médiách s Rasťom Kuželom a Ivanom Godárskym z MEMO 98 (rozhovor pre Médiaportál) http://www.infovolby.sk/index.php?base=data/prez/2004/analyzy/1082490397.txt.
MEMO98 (2004a): Prezentácia kandidátov na post prezidenta SR v elektronických médiách (1. 3. 2004 – 18. 3. 2004). http://www.memo98.sk/index.php?base=data/spravy/2004/prezident4.txt.
MEMO98 (2004b): Prezentácia kandidátov na post prezidenta SR v elektronických médiách (19 .3. 2004 - 28. 3. 2004) http://www.memo98.sk/index.php?base=data/spravy/2004/prezident5.txt.
Meyer, Thomas a Lew Hinchman (2001): Media Democracy. How the Media Colonize Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Školkay, Andrej (2003): Volebná kampaň 2002. Bratislava: autor
Ústava Slovenskej republiky (2001). Bratislava: Heuréka.
Tóth, Rastislav (1999): Prezidentské voľby v SR 1999. Politické vedy, r.II., č.3, s. 34-49.
Výsledky hlasovania vo voľbe prezidenta SR. Bratislava: Štatistický úrad, č.832/99-200.
Weiss, Peter (2004): Podajú si Mečiar s Klausom ruky v NATO a EÚ? Slovo, č.15, s. 3.
Žanony, Robert (2004): Nesmrteľný antimečiarizmus. Slovo, č.17, s. 1 a 2.

Pri monitoringu kampane boli použité najmä denníky Sme a Pravda, a spomedzi týždenníkov najmä The Slovak Spectator a Slovo, v období december 2003 až máj 2004.



Copyright (c) 2004 Andrej Školkay

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.