Misunderstanding the Other and Shy Signs of Openness: Discourse on the 1992-1995 War in the Current Bosniak and Bosnian Serb Media

Michal Janíčko

Abstrakt

The article deals with how the 1990s civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was represented in the media that currently remain influential among Bosniaks and Bosnian Serbs. Critical discourse analysis is used both as a theoretical approach to discourse and as a methodological tool for its study. In the analysis, the civil war discourse in Bosniak and Bosnian Serb media is represented by two daily newspapers on each side. The analysis reveals mutually incompatible representations of the causes and nature of the war, the prevailing absence of dialogue, and the unwillingness of each side to consider the other side’s war victims. Looking at more specific topics, a number of discourses are identified on both sides, among which some present the potential for dialogue with alternative representations. The discourses are interpreted through Bosniak and Bosnian Serb nationalist ideologies. The findings might support further research on the relation between the media and nationalism and on the ongoing Bosnian political dispute concerning the desired nature of the state.

Bibliografická citace

Janíčko, M. (2015). Misunderstanding the Other and Shy Signs of Openness: Discourse on the 1992-1995 War in the Current Bosniak and Bosnian Serb Media. Středoevropské politické studie, 17(1), 28–56. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2015.1.28

Klíčová slova

Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bosniaks; Serbs; Media; Discourse Analysis; Nationalism; Bosna a Hercegovina; Bosňáci; Srbové; média; diskurzivní analýza; nacionalismus

Plný Text:

HTML (English)

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Barth, Fredrik (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries. Boston: Little, Brown.

Behram, Mirsad (2014). “Deceniju poslije: Stari most (ni)je povezao dvije strane u Mostaru.” Radio Slobodna Evropa, 23. 7. 2014, on-line (http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/deceniju-poslije-stari-most-nije-poveza-dvije-strane-u-mostaru/25466436.html) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Bender, Fahrudin (2014). “Sjećanje na nastanak Armije BiH / Remembering the foundation of ARBiH”. Oslobođenje, April 16, 2014, p. 7.

Berić, Gojko (2013). “Uzrok rata ne pominjati / Don’t mention the cause of the war”. Oslobođenje, June 27, 2013, p. 10.

Bižić, Saša (2013). “Od inverzije do perverzije / From inversion to perversion”. Press RS, July 13, 2013, p. 2.

Čekić, Smail (2013). “Srebrenica je bila koncentracioni kamp UN-a u kojem je genocid vršen javno / Srebrenica was a concentration camp of UN where genocide was performed in public”. Dnevni Avaz, July 11, 2013, p. 6–7.

Ćirković, Krstina (2013). “Ukopano 409 žrtava / 409 victims buried”. Glas Srpske, July 12, 2013, p. 4.

Dedić, M. (2013). “Sjećanja na najmilije ne mogu se zabraniti / Remembering the most loved ones can’t be prohibited”. Dnevni Avaz, June 1, 2013, p. 9.

Domazet, Željka (2014a). “Pravda čeka 22 godine / Justice has been waiting for 22 years”. Glas Srpske, May 4, 2014, p. 2.

Domazet, Željka (2014b). “Rane iz Dobrovoljačke još nisu zacijelile / The wounds from Dobrovoljačka are not yet healed”. Glas Srpske, May 3, 2014.

Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Bosne i Hercegovine (1993). Nacionalni sastav stanovništva: Rezultati za republiku po opštinama i naseljenim mjestima. Sarajevo.

Džihana, Amer, Čendić, Kristina and Tahmaz, Meliha (2012). Mapping Digital Media: Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Report by the Open Society Foundations. Open Society Foundations, on-line (http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/mapping-digital-media-bosnia-20120706.pdf) [Accessed 20 Feb. 2015].

European Court of Human Rights, (2013). Predmet Maktouf i Damjanović protiv Bosne i Hercegovine - presuda. Strasbourg, on-line

(http://www.mhrr.gov.ba/PDF/UredPDF/default.aspx?id=3989&langTag=bs-BA) [Accessed 27Apr. 2015].

Fairclough, Norman (2003). Analysing discourse. London: Routledge.

Filipović, Najdan (2013). “Statistički podaci iz ‘‘Bosanske knjige mrtvih’’ prezentirani prema istraživanjima Mirsada Tokače direktora Istraživačko dokumentacionog centra (IDC) u Sarajevu”, BH Magazin, 25. 1. 2013, on-line (http://web.archive.org/web/20130131121435/http://www.bhmagazin.com/kolumne/bosanskilonac/item/11023-statisti%C4%8Dki-podaci-iz-bosanske-knjige-mrtvih-prezentirani-prema-istra%C5%BEivanjima-mirsada-toka%C4%8De-direktora-istra%C5%BEiva%C4%8Dko-dokumentacionog-centra-idc-u-sarajevu.html) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Glas Srpske (2013a). “Danas pomen za ubijene Srbe / Today a commemoration for the killed Serbs”. Glas Srpske, July 12, 2013, p. 4.

Glas Srpske (2013b). “Sjećanje na 305 poginulih boraca / Remembering 205 killed fighters”. Glas Srpske, June 12, 2013, p. 10.

Hadžić, Almasa (2014). “Mjesto za branioce / A place for the defenders”. Dnevni Avaz, April 7, 2014, p. 3.

Hodžić, Dževad (2014). “Srbi nisu genocidan narod / The Serbs aren’t a genocidal nation”. Oslobođenje, May 2, 2014, p. 10.

Istinito (2013). “Kojim medijima građani BiH najviše vjeruju.” 17. 6. 2013, on-line (http://www.istinito.com/index.php/aktuelno/item/9240-kojim-medijima-gradani-bih-najvise-vjeruju.html) [Accessed 20 Feb. 2015].

Jenkins, Richard (1997). Rethinking ethnicity. London: Sage.

Jørgensen, Marianne and Phillips, Louise (2002). Discourse analysis as theory and method. London: Sage Publications.

Jusić, Tarik (2009). “Media discourse and the Politics of Ethnic Conflict: The Case of Yugoslavia.” In: P. Kolstø, ed., Media Discourse and the Yugoslav Conflicts, 1st ed. London: Ashgate, 21–38.

Karić, S. (2013). “Krik iz doline šehida / Cry from the shahid valley”. Oslobođenje, July 12, 2013, p. 2.

Katana, Gordana (2013). “Da se ne zaborave Edna, Edin i 3173 nevine žrtve / Not to forget Edna, Edin and 3173 innocent victims”. Oslobođenje, June 1, 2013, p. 2–3.

Kolstø, Pål (2009). Media Discourse and the Yugoslav Conflicts. London: Ashgate.

Kordić, Snježana (2010). Jezik i nacionalizam. [Zagreb]: Durieux.

Kupusović, Sulejman (2014). “Militantno Srbovanje / Militant Serbing”. Dnevni Avaz, May 17, 2014, p. 10.

Kurspahić, Kemal (2003). Zločin u 19:30. Beograd: Dan Graf.

Kuzaga, Vedrana (2014). “Borci nikada neće biti zaboravljeni / The fighters will never get forgotten”. Glas Srpske, May 13, 2014, p. 2.

Marko, Davor (2010). Izvještavanje u interesu političkih elita. Novi pogledi 17: 34–37.

Marković, Žarko (2014). “Grobari suživota / The gravediggers of coexistence”. Press RS, February 1, 2014, p. 2.

Momić, Darko (2014). “Sejdić i Finci im preči od sudbine sarajevskih Srba / They prefer Sejdić and Finci over Serbs of Sarajevo”. Press RS, January 14, 2014, p. 3.

Muhić, S. (2014). “ARBiH je najveće dostignuće patriota / ARBiH is the biggest success of the patriots”. Dnevni Avaz, April 15, 2014, p. 8–9.

Muračević, Eset (2014). “U Vogošći svečano obilježen Dan nezavisnosti / Independence Day festively commemorated in Vogošća”. Dnevni Avaz, March 1, 2014, p. 5.

Narodna skupština Republike Srpske, (2013). Deklaracija o uzrocima, karakteru i posljedicama tragičnog oružanog sukoba u Bosni i Hercegovini od 1992. do 1995. godine. Banja Luka.

Nikolić, Maja (2013). “Građanima BiH prijeti još veće siromaštvo.” Radio Slobodna Evropa, 19. 10. 2013, on-line (http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/gradjanima-bih-prijeti-jos-vece-siromastvo/25141698.html) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Press RS (2013a). “Presude Suda BiH na reviziju / Judgments of the Court of BiH to be revised”. Press RS, June 27, 2013, p. 3.

Press RS (2013b). “Srbe umanjuju / They marginalize the Serbs”. Press RS, July 7, 2013, p. 5.

Puhalo, Srđan (2009). Etnička distanca i (auto)stereotipi građana Bosne i Hercegovine. Sarajevo: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Sadiković, Mirna (2012). “Boljke medija u BiH: Ovisnost, pritisci i govor mržnje.” Radio Slobodna Evropa, 6. 3. 2012, on-line (http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/boljke_medija_u_bih_ovisnost_pritisci_i_govor_mrznje/24506932.html) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Selimbegović, Vildana (2014a). “Izborni kapacitet Nasera Orića / The election potential of Naser Orić”. Oslobođenje, February 3, 2014, p. 10.

Selimbegović, Vildana (2014b). “Žao mi Armije / I am sorry for the Army”. Oslobođenje, April 21, 2014, p. 6.

Srna (2014a). “Obilježeno 22 godine od oslobođenja / 22 years since the liberation”. Glas Srpske, May 4, 2014, p. 4.

Srna (2014b). “VRS je bila jedan od presudnih faktora stvaranja Republike Srpske / VRS was one of the most crucial factors of forming of RS”. Press RS, May 12, 2014, p. 3.

Srna, (2014c). “Najveća stopa nezaposlenosti u BiH.” Nezavisne novine, 1. 5. 2014, on-line (http://www.nezavisne.com/posao/analize/Najveca-stopa-nezaposlenosti-u-BiH-242906.html) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Tanjug, (2014). “BiH: Siromašno dve trećine građana.” Novosti.rs, 9. 6. 2014, on-line (http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/planeta.300.html:495377-BiH-Siromasno-dve-trecine-gradjana) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

Tešanović, Nada (2012). Balkanski medijski barometr: Bosna i Hercegovina 2011. Sarajevo: Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung.

Thompson, Mark (2000). Proizvodnja rata. Beograd: Medija centar.

Turčilo, Lejla (2010). “Bosanski mediji zaista oslikavaju podijeljenost društva: Balkan Insight.” Balkaninsight.com, on-line (http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/bosanski-mediji-zaista-oslikavaju-podijeljenost-drustva) [Accessed 25 Apr. 2015].

Udovičić, Radenko (2010). Izbori 2010. u BiH. Sarajevo: Media plan institut.

UN ICTY, (n.d.). The Conflicts, on-line (http://www.icty.org/sid/322) [Accessed 27 Apr. 2015].

van Dijk, Teun (1993). Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse and Society, 4(2): 249–283.

Vlada Republike Srpske (2015). Сутра обиљежавање страдања Срба у Сијековцу 1992. Године. Vladars.net, 25. 3. 2015, on-line (http://www.vladars.net/sr-SP-Cyrl/Vlada/Ministarstva/mpb/media/aktuelnosti/Pages/sijekovac-sutra.aspx) [Accessed 2 May 2015].

Vukoja, Ivan (2005). “Društvene i političke elite u BiH – pitanje odgovornosti.” STATUS magazín za političku kulturu i društvena pitanja, 7: 123–137.

Zebić, Enis (2013). “U Zagrebu predstavljena Bosanska knjiga mrtvih.” Radio Slobodna Evropa, 28. 5. 2013, on-line (http://www.slobodnaevropa.org/content/u-zagrebu-predstavljena-bosanska-knjiga-mrtvih/24999848.html) [Accessed 20 Feb. 2015].

Zwierzchowski, Jan and Tabeau, Ewa (2010). “The 1992-95 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Census-Based Multiple System Estimation of Casualties’ Undercount.” Conference Paper, Berlin, on-line (http://www.icty.org/x/file/About/OTP/War_Demographics/en/bih_casualty_undercount_conf_paper_100201.pdf) [Accessed 20 Feb. 2015].

https://doi.org/10.5817/CEPSR.2015.1.28


Copyright (c) 2015 Michal Janíčko

Creative Commons License
Tato práce je licencována pod licencí Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.