Distální část lidské ruky: Studie variability formy a sexuálního dimorfismu metodami geometrické morfometrie

Miroslav Králík, Stanislav Katina, Petra Urbanová

Abstrakt

Tradičně se lidská ruka studuje prostřednictvím měření a srovnávání jednotlivých segmentů (prstů, článků prstů, záprstních kostí) bez zohlednění jejich vzájemných prostorových souvislostí. Cílem této studie je výzkum vnitro-populační variability formy lidské ruky jako celku v oblasti tříčlánkových prstů se zvláštním zaměřením na sexuální dimorfismus a vztah mezi velikostí a tvarem ruky. Pravé ruce 99 žen a 70 mužů, převážně vysokoškolských studentů, byly ve standardizované poloze z palmární strany zaznamenány běžným stolním skenerem. Na každém dvourozměrném snímku bylo umístěno 16 význačných bodů a byla studována variabilita mezi těmito konfiguracemi prostřednictvím metod geometrické morfometrie. Pro lepší pochopení vnitřních vzorců variability tvaru byl tvarový prostor rozložen na afinní a neafinní podprostor, které byly dále analyzovány samostatně. Převážná část celkové variability byla spojena s afinními tvarovými rozdíly, které jsou identické v celé studované oblasti ruky. Jejich větší část představovala střižnou změnu v proximodistálním směru, menší část pak napínání odpovídající změnám v šířce ruky. Toto napínání také silně korelovalo s velikostí ruky. Mezipohlavní rozdíly představovala afinní změna, ve které byla proximodistální střižná změna neoddělitelně spojena se změnami v relativní šířce ruky. Lokální neafinní pohlavní rozdíly byly zaznamenány v určitých článcích prstů a mohou souviset s rozdíly v poměrech délek prstů. Domníváme se, že oddělení globálních a lokálních sexuálně dimorfních znaků ruky může pomoci blíže ozřejmit původ/počátek jejich dimorfismu v rané ontogenezi – čím lokálnější znak, tím později se v ontogenezi zakládá. Dimorfní znaky lokální a globální by proto mohly být ovlivněny odlišnými ontogenetickými faktory.

Bibliografická citace

Králík, M. – Katina, S. – Urbanová, P. (2014): Distal Part of the Human Hand: Study of Form Variability and Sexual Dimorphism Using Geometric Morphometrics. Anthropologia integra, 5(2), 7-25. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/AI2014-2-7

Klíčová slova

Lidská ruka; tvar; variabilita formy; sexuální dimorfismus; proximodistální střižná variabilita ruky

Plný Text:

Reference

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