Complex approach to monitoring athletes in the scope of overtraining prevention

Martina Bernaciková, Jan Novotný, Iva Burešová, Alena Žákovská

Abstract

The article introduces the issue of monitoring intensively training athletes who wish to avoid overtraining and want their training to be as effective as possible. The current definitions of overreaching and overtraining are addressed, together with the summary of causes, development and prevention of such conditions. The focus of the article is on the overview of relevant diagnostic methods including the latest non-invasive biochemical methods. The complex approach to the selection of psychological and physiological methods to establish the degree of the internal load of athletes is emphasised. A three-degree concept of athlete monitoring according to the demandingness and periodicity of diagnostic methods usage is presented.

Keywords

Athletes, Monitoring, Fatigue, Overreaching, Overtraining, Overtraining syndrome, HRV, POMS

Full Text:

References

Show references Hide references

de Araújo JA, Queiroz MG, Novelli FI, de Jesus Lima de Sousa LC, Tricot GK, Lourenço Dias AR, Arsa G, Lucieli Teresa Cambri LT. (2017). Aerobic fitness influences rest and heart rate recovery on young men regardless of body mass index. Sport Sciences for Health, 13(1), 217–223.

Bisschoff ChA, Coetzee B, Esco MR. (2016). Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15(4), 658-669.

Bocanegra OL, Diaz MM, Teixeira RR, Soares SS, Espindola FS. /20152). Detrmination of the lactate threshold by means of salivary biomakers: chromogranin A as novel marker of exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112, 3195-3203.

Bosquet L, Merkari S, Arvisais D, et al (2008). Is heart rate a convenient tool to monitor over-reaching? A systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42,709-714.

Botek M, Krejčí J, McKune AJ. (2018). Variabilita srdeční frekvence v tréninkovém procesu: historie, současnost a perspektiva. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci.

Budgett R, Newsholme E, Lehmann M, et al (2000). Redefining the overtraining syndrome as the unexplained underperformance syndrome. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34: 67-68. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.1.67

Burešová I, Demlová T, Bartošová K. (2016). Coping strategies prefered byx adolescents when managing stress in sport – pilot study. The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences. Future Academy: 240-254. (https://doi.org/10.15405/epsb.2016.11.25).

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monhk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res., 28((2), 19-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

Conroy DE, Willow JP, Metzler JN. (2002). Multidimensional fear of failure measurement the performance failure appraisal inventory. J Appl Psychol, 14, 76-90.

Foster C. (1998). Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(7), 1164-1168. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199807000-00023

Gazzano F., Gabbett T. (2017). A practical guide to workload management and injury prevention in college and high school sports. NSCA Coach, 4 (4), 30-35.

Grove JR, Main LC, Partridge K, Bishop D, Russel S, Shepherdson A, and Ferguson L. (2014). Training distress and performance readiness: Laboratory and field validation of a brief self-report measure. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Sicience in Sports, 24, 483-490. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12214

Gustafsson H, Sagar SS, Stenlink A. (2017). Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport. Scand J Med Sports, 27, 2091-2102. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12797

Halson SL, Lancaster GI, Jeukendrup AE, Gleeson M (2003). Immunological responses to overreaching in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(5), 854-861.

Holzer K. (2012). The tired athlete. In: Brukner P. & Khan K. (eds.). Clinical Sports Medicine. Sydney: The Mc Graw-Hill Co: 1118-1131.

Jeukendrup A. (2015). Causes and prevention of overtraining. Retrieved from http://www.mysportscience.com/single-post/2015/03/08/Causes-and-prevention-of-overtraining

Kellman, M. & Kallus, K. W. (2001). The Recovery - Stress Questionnaire for Athletes: User manual.Champaign,IL: Human Kinetics.

Lee EC, Fragala MS, Kavouras SA, Queen RM, Pryor JL, Casa DJ. (2017). Biomarkers in sports and exercise: Tracking heatlh, performance, and recovery in athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(10), 2920-2937. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002122

Lindsay A and Costello JT. (2017). Realising the potencial of urine and saliva as diagnostic tools in sport and exercise medicine. Sports Med, 47, 11-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0558-1

Máček M, Radvanský J, Brůnová B, Daďová K, Fajstavr J, Kolář P, Kraus J, Krejčí P, Kučera M, Máčková J, Rotman I, Slabý K, Šafářová M, Zeman V. (2011). Fyziologie a klinické aspekty pohybové aktivity. Praha: Galén.

Main L, Grove JR. (2009). A multi-component assessment model for monitoring training distress among athletes. Eur J Sport Sci 2009;9:195–202.

Makivić B, Djordjević M, Willis MS. (2013). Heart rate variability (HRV) as a tool for diagnostic and monitoring performance in sport and physical activities. J Exerc Physiology, 16(3), 103-131.

Marek EM, Volke J, Hawener I, Mückenhoff K, Marek W. (2010). Measurements of lactate in exhalted breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young and healthy subjects. J Breath Res, 4, 017105 (8 pp).

Meussen R, Duclos M, Foster C, Fry A, Gleeson M, Nieman D, Raglin J, Rietjens G, Steinacker J, Urhausen A. (2013). Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: Joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). European Journal of Sport Science, 13(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2012.730061

Morgan W, Brown D, Raglin J, O´Connor P, Ellickson K. (1987). Psychological monitoring of overtraining and staleness. Br J Sports Med, 21, 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.21.3.107

Myrick K.M. (2015). Overtraining and Overreaching. Syndrome in Athletes. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11 (10), 1018-1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.08.038

Novotný J. Biologické ukazatele odezvy a adaptace na zátěž, únavy a regenerace sil. In: Kolektiv autorů. (2013). Regenerace a výživa ve sportu. Brno: Fakulta sportovních studií MU.

Rushall, B. S. (1990). A tool for measuring stress tolerance in elite athletes. Applied Sport Psychology, 2, 51-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209008406420

Samuels CH, James L, Lawson D, Meeuwisse W. (2015). The Athlete Sleeping Screening Questionnaire: a new toll for assessing and managing sleep in elite athletes. Br J Sports Med, 50, 418-422. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094332

Soligard T, Schwellnus M, Alonso JM, Bahr R, Clarsen B, Dijkstra HP, Gabbett T, Gleeson M, Hägglund M, Hutchinson MR, Janse van Rensburg C, Khan KM, Meeusen R, Orchard JW, Pluim BM, Raftery M, Budgett R, Engebretsen L. (2016). How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury. British Journal of Sports and Medicine, 50(17), 1030-1041. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096581

Stejskal, P., Šlachta, R., Elfmark, M., Salinger, J., Gaul-Aláčová, P. (2002). Spectral analysis of heart rate variability: New evaluation method. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucencis Gymnica, 32 (2), 13-18.

Tanner A.V., Nielsen B.V., Allgrove J. (2014). Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(7), 680-689. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.850594

Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., Lane, H. J., & Keohane, L. (1999). Development and validation of a mood measure for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 861–872. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404199365425

Thorpe RT, Atkinson G, Drust B, Gregson W. (2017). Monitoring fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes: Implications for practise. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(2), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0434

Wyatt F. B., Donaldson A., Brown E. (2013). The Overtraining Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline, 16(2), 12-23.

https://doi.org/10.5817/StS2019-1-2


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.