Lateral differences in maximal grip strength in Czech male tennis players aged 11 – 12 in the context of injury prevention
The term laterality indicates the one-sided preference or functional advantage of the stronger, more accurate and coordinated limbs or organs and the brain hemisphere of a human body. In the preference process, more accurate, precise, coordinated and stronger side is chosen from the perspective of motoric functions. Among the general population is about 10-13% of left-handers and in certain sport fields this percentage may (baseball, tennis, box etc.). The left-handed dominance in tennis is considered an advantage. Due to unilateral load, there may be an excessive side-effect in strength differences in tennis and overloading of specific muscle group could lead to an injury. The aim of the research was to identify the levels of somatic and strength characteristics and assess the lateral difference in maximal grip strength of Czech elite male tennis players. The sample consisted of male tennis players, ranging in age from 11 to 12.9 years (n=186) who participated in the regular tests for Czech Tennis Association in years 2000-2018. Base anthropometrics were measured (height, weight) and maximal grip strength of both hands using the hand-held dynamometry (Grip D, Takei). Data came from normal distribution (statistically proven – chi-square test). The basic statistical characteristics were calculated (body height, M=155.08±7.98 cm; body weight, M=43.45±7.13 kg; strength of right hand: M=24.88±4.67 kp; strength of left hand: M=21.70±4.74 kp). It was found that 87.6% of the players (n=163) were right-handed and the remaining 12.4% left-handed (n=23). The assessment of the significance (Cohen´s d) between the dominant (playing) hand for the right-handed and left-handed players showed small effect size (dominant hand right: MRHR=25.11±4.41 kp, dominant hand left: MLHL=26.62±5.65 kp; d=0.30, small) in favor of the left-handed players. The difference between the dominant and the non-dominant hand showed large effect size for the right-handed (dominant hand right vs. hand left; MRHR=25.11±4.41 kp, MRHL=21.01±4.15 kp, d=0.96, large) and medium effect size for the left-handed players (dominant hand left vs. hand right; MLHL=26.62±5.65 kp, MLHR=23.24±5.98 kp, d=0.58, medium). The results showed that the value of 15 % level of strength laterality between dominant and non-dominant hand was exceeded for the right-handed (55.83 %) and left-handed (43.48%) groups ergo the exceeded value could be a cause of injuries. Because of this signals attention should be given during training process for optimizing the required load.
Bohannon, R. W. (2003). Grip strength: a summary of studies comparing dominant and nondominant limb measurements. Perceptual and motor skills, 96(3), 728-730. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2003.96.3.728
Butterfield, S. A., Lehnhard, R. A., Loovis, E. M., Coladarci, T., & Saucier, D. (2009). Grip strength performances by 5-to 19-year-olds. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(2), 362-370. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.109.2.362-370
Domino, G., Świątkowski, P., & Matłosz, P. (2015). Characteristics and analysis of determinants for two-handed forehand in tennis. Scientific Review of Physical Culture. 4. 253-263.
Ellenbecker, T. S., Roetert, E. P., Bailie, D. S., Davies, G. J., & Brown, S. W. (2002). Glenohumeral joint total rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and baseball pitchers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(12), 2052-2056. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200212000-00028
Faurie, C., & Raymond, M. (2004). Handedness frequency over more than ten thousand years. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 271(Suppl 3), S43-S45. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0092
Fredriksen, P. M., Mamen, A., Hjelle, O. P., & Lindberg, M. (2018). Handgrip strength in 6–12-year-old children: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP). Scandinavian journal of public health, 46(21_suppl), 54-60. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494818769851
Garcia-Hermoso, A., Cofre-Bolados, C., Andrade-Schnettler, R., Ceballos-Ceballos, R., Fernández-Vergara, O., Vegas-Heredia, E. D., ... & Izquierdo, M. (2018). Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Chilean Children at 8-12 Years Old Using the Empirical Distribution and the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma Statistical Methods. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 00(0), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002631
Garipuy, C. (2001), The use of laterality in tennis training, ITF Coaching & sport science review 23, 3-5.
Gómez-Campos, R., Andruske, C. L., de Arruda, M., Sulla-Torres, J., Pacheco-Carrillo, J., Urra-Albornoz, C., & Cossio-Bolaños, M. (2018). Normative data for handgrip strength in children and adolescents in the Maule Region, Chile: Evaluation based on chronological and biological age. PloS one, 13(8), e0201033. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201033
Grouios, G. (2004). Motoric dominance and sporting excellence: Training versus heredity. Perceptual and motor skills, 98(1), 53-66. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.98.1.53-66
Hepping, A. M., Ploegmakers, J. J., Geertzen, J. H., Bulstra, S. K., & Stevens, M. (2015). The influence of hand preference on grip strength in children and adolescents; a cross-sectional study of 2284 children and adolescents. PloS one, 10(11), e0143476. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143476
Kocher, M. H., Oba, Y., Kimura, I. F., Stickley, C. D., Morgan, C. F., & Hetzler, R. K. (2018). Allometric Grip Strength Norms for American Children. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 00(0), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002515
Kocher, M. H., Romine, R. K., Stickley, C. D., Morgan, C. F., Resnick, P. B., & Hetzler, R. K. (2017). Allometric Grip Strength Norms for Children of Hawaiian Lineage. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(10), 2794-2807. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001711
Loffing, F., Hagemann, N., & Strauss, B. (2012). Left-handedness in professional and amateur tennis. PLoS One, 7(11), e49325. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049325
Loffing, F., Sölter, F., & Hagemann, N. (2014). Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences. PloS one, 9(8), e105800. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800
Molenaar, H. M., Selles, R. W., Zuidam, J. M., Willemsen, S. P., Stam, H. J., & Hovius, S. E. (2010). Growth diagrams for grip strength in children. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, 468(1), 217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-009-0881-z
Omar, M. T., Alghadir, A. H., Zafar, H., & Al Baker, S. (2018). Hand grip strength and dexterity function in children aged 6-12 years: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 31(1), 93-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2017.02.004
Ploegmakers, J. J., Hepping, A. M., Geertzen, J. H., Bulstra, S. K., & Stevens, M. (2013). Grip strength is strongly associated with height, weight and gender in childhood: a cross sectional study of 2241 children and adolescents providing reference values. Journal of physiotherapy, 59(4), 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70202-9
Ramírez-Vélez, R., Morales, O., Peña-Ibagon, J. C., Palacios-López, A., Prieto-Benavides, D. H., Vivas, A., ... & Izquierdo, M. (2017). Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(1), 217-226. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001459
Raymond, M., Pontier, D., Dufour, A. B., & Moller, A. P. (1996). Frequency-dependent maintenance of left handedness in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 263(1377), 1627-1633. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1996.0238
Ziagkas, E., Mavvidis, A., Grouios, G., & Laios, A. (2017). Investigating the role of ipsilateral and contralateral eye-hand dominance in tennis serve accuracy of amateur tennis players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(2), 867.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.