Ústavní soudy a předběžné otázky k SDEU: sofistikovaná strategie, nebo věc náhody?

Roč.31,č.2(2023)

Abstrakt

Tento článek zkoumá faktory, které ovlivňují rozhodnutí ústavních soudů podat předběžnou otázku k Soudnímu dvoru Evropské unie. Studie se zaměřuje na 22 ústavních soudů, které v období mezi roky 1958 a 2022 podaly celkem 122 předběžných otázek. V článku předně ukazuji, že ústavní soudy, které dosud nepředložily žádnou předběžnou otázku, jsou nyní ve výrazné menšině. Rozdíly v počtu položených otázek u zbývajících ústavních soudů však zůstávají výrazné a většinový přístup je spíše pasivní. V další části článku kriticky hodnotím dosavadní zkratkovité vnímání mechanismu čl. 267 SFEU čistě jakožto strategicko-politického nástroje evropské integrace, který ústavní soudy cíleně využívají k prosazování jejich zájmů v rámci ústavních konfliktů mezi nimi a SDEU. V poslední části konečně zasazuji rozhodování ústavních soudců o zapojení do formálního dialogu s Lucemburkem do ucelenější teorie ústavního soudnictví a identifikuji čtyři základní skupiny vlivných faktorů – právní, institucionální, osobní a strategické.


Klíčová slova:
Ústavní soudy; Soudní dvůr Evropské unie; předběžné otázky; SDEU; čl. 267 SFEU; ústavní pluralismus; ústavní konflikty; strategické rozhodování

Stránky:
253–284
Reference

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