Medzinárodné právo, umelá inteligencia a vice versa

Ján Klučka

Abstrakt

Globálny rozvoj umelej inteligencie charakterizovaný jej rýchlym rastom a diverzifikáciou prostriedkov praktickej aplikácie nie je v súčasnosti sprevádzaný vznikom pravidiel medzinárodného práva ako jedným z možných prostriedkov jej úpravy. Dôvody sú viaceré, a to na jednej strane absencia právnej definície umelej inteligencie a na druhej strane špecifiká tvorby pravidiel medzinárodného práva. Okrem obsahových nejasností možnej úpravy umelej inteligencie je tvorba pravidiel medzinárodného práva časovo náročná, a preto nemôže adekvátne reagovať na rýchly rozvoj technológií umelej inteligencie. Túto legislatívnu medzeru v súčasnom období vypĺňajú pravidlá soft law a medzinárodné štandardy, tvorba ktorých je rýchlejšia a schopná primeranejšie reagovať na nové výzvy umelej inteligencie. Tieto pravidlá môžu súčasne predstavovať inšpiráciu aj pre tvorbu nových právnych pravidiel. Doterajšie skúsenosti signalizujú, že úloha medzinárodného práva zrejme (aspoň v dohľadnej dobe) nebude dominantná, ale že pôjde o viaczložkovú úpravu, na ktorej sa budú podieľať aj pravidlá soft law a medzinárodné štandardy, pričom ich vzájomné vzťahy a význam sa môžu v budúcnosti meniť. Vo vzťahu k umelej inteligencii však možno aplikovať aj právne pravidlá súčasného medzinárodné práva, pokiaľ to ich výklad dovolí. Ak tomu tak nie je, prichádza do úvahy vznik novej medzinárodnej zmluvy. Umelá inteligencia má vplyv aj na procesné pravidlá medzinárodného práva, napríklad na monitorovanie a kontrolu plnenia medzinárodných záväzkov, proces prípravy medzinárodnej zmluvy, proces rokovania o medzinárodnej zmluve, identifikáciu procesu vzniku obyčajového pravidla, výpočtovú analýzu textu medzinárodnej zmluvy a pod.

Bibliografická citace

KLUČKA, Ján. Medzinárodné právo, umelá inteligencia a vice versa. Časopis pro právní vědu a praxi. [Online]. 2021, č. 3, s. 551-572. [cit. 2021-11-30]. Dostupné z: https://journals.muni.cz/cpvp/article/view/14601

Klíčová slova

Definícia umelej inteligencia; prekážky tvorby nových pravidiel medzinárodného práva; soft law; všeobecné štandardy; výklad a uplatnenie pravidiel platného medzinárodného práva; vzťah umelej inteligencie a medzinárodného práva.

Plný Text:

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

1st International Congress for the Governance of AI [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.icgai.org/

ALSCHNER, Wolfgang. The Computational Analysis of International Law. In: Ottawa Faculty of Law Working Paper No. 2019-33 [online]. 2019 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3428762

ARAYA, Daniel a Rodrigo NIETO-GÓMEZ. Renewing Multilateral Governance in the Age of AI. Centre for International Governance Innovation [online]. 2020, s. 10 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.cigionline.org/articles/renewing-multilateral-governance-age-ai

BOUTIN, Berenice. Technologies for International Law & International Law for Technologies. GroJIL-blog [online]. 2018 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://grojil.org/2018/10/22/technologies-for-international-law-international-law-for-technologies/

BUITTEN, Miriam C. Towards Intelligent Regulation of Artificial Intelligence. European Journal of Risk Regulation [online]. 2019, roč. 10, č. 1 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-journal-of-risk-regulation/article/towards-intelligent-regulation-of-artificial-intelligence/AF1AD1940B70DB88D2B24202EE933F1B

BURRI, Thomas. International law and Artificial Intelligence. In: German Yearbook of International Law [online]. 2017, roč. 60 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3060191

CIHON, Peter. Standards for AI Governance: International Standards to Enable Global Coordination in AI Research&Development. Future of Humanity Institute [online]. 2019 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: http://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/Standards_-FHI-Technical-Report.pdf

CIHON, Peter, Matthijs M. MAAS, a Luke KEMP. Should Artificial Intelligence Governance be Centralised? Design Lessons from History. Proceedings of Proceedings of the 2020 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (AIES ’20) [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://arxiprotiorg/pdf/2001.03573.pdf

DEEKS, Ashley. Introduction to the Symposium: How Will Artificial Intelligence Affect International Law? AJIL Unbound [online]. 2020, roč. 114 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/american-journal-of-international-law/article/introduction-to-the-symposium-how-will-artificial-intelligence-affect-international-law/CD26AD55818677B9B28FB59EAD96D4BB

DEEKS, Ashley. High-Tech International Law. In: Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2020-10 [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3531976

DIALLO, Boubacar Sidi. The Binding Force of International Legal Standards in the Face of the Recurrent Practice of Soft Law. Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review [online]. 2017, roč. 7 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/12190/12031. https://doi.org/10.14746/ppuam.2017.7.05

DOCHERTY, Bonnie. The Need for and Elements of a New Treaty on Fully Autonomous Weapons. Human Rights Watch [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/06/01/need-and-elements-new-treaty-fully-autonomous-weapons

European Parliament Resolution of 20 January 2001 on artificial intelligence: questions of interpretation and application of international law in so far as the EU is affected in the area of civil and military uses and of state authority outsade the scope of criminal justice (2020/2013(INI)) [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2021-0009_EN.html

ERDÉLYI, Olivia J. a Judy GOLDSMITH. Regulating Artificial Intelligence: Proposal for A Global Solution. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence [online]. 2018 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://par.nsf.gov/servlets/purl/10066933. https://doi.org/10.1145/3278721.3278731

Foundational Standards: Concepts and terminology (SC 42 WD 22989) [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.iso.org/standard/74296.html

Framework for Artificial Intelligence Systems Using Machine Learning (SC 42 WD 23053) [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.iso.org/standard/74438.html

G20 Principles on Artificial Intelligence [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.meti.go.jp/press/2019/06/20190610010/20190610010-1.pdf

HILL, Steven a Nadia MARSAN. Artificial Intelligence and Accountability: A multinational Legal Perspective [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.sto.nato.int/publications/STO%20Meeting%20Proceedings/STO-MP-IST-160/MP-IST-160-PP-4.pdf

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards Association. Pracovná skupina IEEE SA´ AI štandardov [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.ieee.org/

International Standard Organization [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.iso.org/home.html

Internet Governance Forum [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.intgovforum.org/vIGF/

Justification Provided by the Governments of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Italy. Report of the sixty-eighth session of the Working Party on Road Traffic Safety, Economic Commission for Europe (Annex) (ECE/TRANS,WP.1 145) [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2014/wp1/ECE-TRANS-WP1-145e.pdf

MAAS, Matthijs M. International Law Does not Compute: Artificial Intelligence and the Development, Displacement or Destruction of the Global Legal Order. In: Melbourne Journal of International Law [online]. 2019, roč. 20 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: http://classic.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbJIL/2019/3.html

MARCHANT Gary. „Soft Law“ Governance of Artificial Intelligence [online]. 2019 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://aipulse.org/soft-law-governance-of-artificial-intelligence/

MARCHANT, Gary E. The Growing Gap Between Emerging Technologies and the Law. In: MARCHANT, Gary E., Braden R. ALLENBY a Joseph R. HERKERT (eds.). The Growing Gap Between Emerging Techologies and Legal-Ehical Oversight: The Pacing Problem. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011, s. 19-33. ISBN 978-94-007-1355-0. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1356-7_2

MIAILHE, Nicolas. AI&Global Governance: Why We Need an Intergovermental Panel for Artificial Intelligence. United Nations, Centre for Policy Research [online]. 2018 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://cpr.unu.edu/publications/articles/ai-global-governance-why-we-need-an-intergovernmental-panel-for-artificial-intelligence.html

MOYANO, Cielo Gonzales. Role of Standards with Respect to Innovative Technologies: AI [online]. 2019 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341193357_Rol_of_Standards_with_Respect_to_Innovative_Technologies_AI

MUELLER, Milton, John MATHIASON a Hans KLEIN. The Internet and Global Governance: Principles and Norms for a New Regime. Global Governance [online]. 2007, roč. 13, č. 2 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.jstor.org/stable/27800656?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents. https://doi.org/10.1163/19426720-01302007

NASH, Lesley. Advancing Intelligence and Global Society: International Law´s Role in Governing the Advance of Artificial Intelligence. Kentucky Law Journal [online]. 2020, roč. 108 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.kentuckylawjournal.org/online-originals/advancing-intelligence-and-global-society-international-laws-role-in-governing-thenbsp-advance-of-artificial-intelligence

New Weapons, Proven Precedent: Elements of and Models for a Treaty on Killer Robots. Human Rights Watch [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/10/20/new-weapons-proven-precedent/elements-and-models-treaty-killer-robots

OECD Principles on Artificial Intelligence on May 22, 2019 [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0449

PERRITT, Henry H., Jr. The Internet is Changing the Public International Legal System. In: Kentucky Law Journal [online]. 2000, roč. 88 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=446102

Report of the Secretary-General: Roadmap for Digital Cooperation. United Nations [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.un.org/en/content/digital-cooperation-roadmap/assets/pdf/Roadmap_for_Digital_Cooperation_EN.pdf

SCHUETT, Jonas, et al.: A legal Definition of AI [online]. 2019 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://deepai.org/publication/a-legal-definition-of-ai. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3453632

SCHERER, Mathew U. Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies, and Strategies. Harward Journal of Law & Technology [online]. 2016, roč. 29, č. 2 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2609777

The Ethics Certification Program for Autonomous and Intelligent Systems (ECPAIS) . IEEE [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://standards.ieee.org/industry-connections/ecpais.html

The IEEE Global Initiative on Ethic of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems. IEEE [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://standards.ieee.org/industry-connections/ec/autonomous-systems.html

VELLINGA, Nynke E. Automated driving and its challenges to international traffic law: which ways to go? In: Law, Innovation and Technology [online]. 2019, roč. 11, no. 2, s. 257-278 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17579961.2019.1665798. https://doi.org/10.1080/17579961.2019.1665798

VIHUL, Liis. International Legal Regulation of Autonomous Technologies. Centre for International Governance Innovation [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.cigionline.org/articles/international-legal-regulation-autonomous-technologies

ZIELKE, Thomas. Is Artificial Intelligence Ready for Standardization? [online]. 2020 [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341616218_Is_Artificial_Intelligence_Ready_for_Standardization

WAIO-World AI Organization [online]. [cit. 3. 4. 2021]. Dostupné z: http://www.waio.ai/

https://doi.org/10.5817/CPVP2021-3-4