Higher Sustainability of Mental Models Acquired from a Digital Game in Comparison with a Live Action Role-playing Game and a Traditional Lecture
This article analyses the effectivity of teaching EU law using various educational media. It specifically explores the differences between, and sustainability of, mental models constructed within three various educational environments: (1) a digital game played on PCs, (2) a non-digital role-playing game, and (3) a traditional lecture with discussions. We conducted a laboratory experiment, in which participants (253 high school students, M = 112, F = 141, mean age 16.5) studied EU laws, institutions, and politics in the three above-mentioned environments. We evaluated and compared mental models participants constructed through content analysis of the concept maps they drew immediately after the experiment and others made one month later. Within the analysis, we studied content, architecture, and changes in mental models over time. The resulting data offer unique insight into the process of mental models creation and sustainability thereof within game-based learning; particularly, when using a digital game. Digital game-based learners’ concept maps differed in comparison with those of the educational role-playing and traditional lecture groups; the students tended to keep less altered mental models in their long-term memory: even after the one month period. The results suggest that a digital game-based learning environment could be more successful in mental model retention and for efficacy of future recall; particularly, when dealing with complex phenomena like EU law.
Concept Maps, Digital Game-based Learning, Mental Models
Faculty of Arts, Charles University
Faculty of Arts, Charles University
 Adams, D. M. et al. (2012) Narrative games for learning: Testing the discovery and narrative hypotheses. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (1), pp. 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025595
 Baroncelli, S., Farneti, R. and Vanhoonacker, S. (2014) Introduction – Teaching European Studies: Educational Challenges. In: Stefania Baroncelli, Roberto Farneti, Ioan Horga and Sophie Vanhoonacker (eds.). Teaching and Learning the European Union: Traditional and Innovative Methods. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 157–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7043-0_1
 Bayram, S. (1995) The effectiveness of concept and software mapping for representing student data and process schema in science. Thesis. University of Pittsburgh.
 Besterfield-Sacre, M. et al. (2004) Scoring concept maps: An integrated rubric for assessing. Journal of Engineering Education, 93 (2), pp. 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2004.tb00795.x
 Boyan, A. and Sherry, J. L. (2011) The Challenge in Creating Games for Education: Aligning Mental Models with Game Models Child Development Perspectives. The Society for Research in Child Development, 5 (2), pp. 82–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00160.x
 Brom, C., Šisler, V. and Slavík, R. (2010) Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045’. Multimedia Systems, 16 (1), pp. 23–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00530-009-0174-0
 Brom, C. et al. (2016) You like it, you learn it: affectivity and learning in competitive social role play gaming. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 11, pp. 313–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-016-9237-3
 Buckley, B. C. and Boulter, C. J. (2000) Investigating the role of representations and expressed models in building mental models. In: John Gilbert and Carolyn Boulter (eds.). Developing models in science education. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 119–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0876-1_6
 Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E. E. and Killingsworth, S. S. (2016) Digital Games, Design, and Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 86 (1), pp. 79–122. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315582065
 Coll, R. K. and Treagust, D. F. (2003) Learners' mental models of metallic bonding: A cross-age study. Science Education, 87, pp. 685–707. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.10059
 Greca, I. M. and Moreira, M. A. (2000) Mental models, conceptual models, and modelling. International Journal of Science Education, 22, pp. 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/095006900289976
 Habgood, J. M. P. and Ainsworth, S. E. (2011) Motivating children to learn effectively: Exploring the value of intrinsic integration in educational games. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20, pp. 169–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2010.508029
 Johnson-Laird, P. (1983) Mental models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Johnson-Laird, P. (2005) The history of mental models. In: The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, pp. 179–212.
 Jones, R. and Bursens, P. (2014) Assessing EU Simulations: Evidence from the Trans-Atlantic EuroSim. In: Stefania Baroncelli, Roberto Farneti, Ioan Horga and Sophie Vanhoonacker (eds.). Teaching and Learning the European Union: Traditional and Innovative Methods. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 157–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7043-0_10
 Kanuka, H. and Anderson, T. (1999) Using Constructivism in Technology-Mediated Learning: Constructing Order out of the Chaos in the Literature. Radical Pedagogy.
 Li, M. and Tsai, C. (2013) Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 22 (6), pp. 877–898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-013-9436-x
 Mayer, R. E., Dyck, J. and Cook, L. K. (1984) Techniques that help readers build mental models from scientific text: Definitions pretraining and signaling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78 (6), pp. 1089–1106. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.119
 Mayer, R. E. and Johnson, C. I. (2010) Adding instructional features that promote learning in a game-like environment. Educational computing research, 42 (3), pp. 241–265. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.42.3.a
 Mintzes, J. J., Wandersee, J. H. and Novak, J. D. (2001) Assessing understanding in biology. Journal of Biological Education, 35 (3), pp. 118–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2001.9655759
 Moreno, R. and Mayer, R. (2007) Interactive multimodal learning environments: Special issue on interactive learning environments: Contemporary issues and trends. Educational Psychology Review, pp. 309–326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-007-9047-2
 Münchow, H., Mengelkamp, C. and Bannert, M. (2017) The better you feel the better you learn: Do warm colours and rounded shapes enhance learning outcome in multimedia learning? Education Research International. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2148139
 Nersessian, N. J. (2002) The cognitive basis of model-based reasoning in science. In: Peter Carruthers, Stephen Stich and Michael Siegal (eds.). The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 133–153. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613517.008
 Nersessian, N. J. (2008) Mental modeling in conceptual change. In: Stella Vosniadou (ed.). International handbook of research in conceptual change. New York: Routledge, pp. 391–416.
 Neuendorf, K. (2002) The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Novak, J. D. and Cañas, A. J. (2008) The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Pensacola: Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition.
 Novak, J. D. and Gowin, B. D. (1984) Learning how to learn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 133–143. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173469
 Plass, J. and Kaplan, U. (2016) Emotional Design in Digital Media for Learning. In: Sharon Tettegah and Martin Gartmeier (eds.). Emotions, Technology, Design, and Learning, pp. 131–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801856-9.00007-4
 Rosario, R. M. and Widmeyer, G. R. (2009) An Exploratory Review of Design Principles in Constructivist Gaming Learning Environments. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20 (3), pp. 289–300.
 Ruiz-Primo, M. A. et al. (2001) On the validity of cognitive interpretations of scores from alternative concept-mapping techniques. Educational Assessment, 7 (2), pp. 99–141. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326977EA0702_2
 Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2000) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, pp. 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
 Schneider, S. et al. (2018) Anthropomorphism in decorative pictures: benefit or harm for learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 110 (2), pp. 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000207
 Schweppe, J. and Rummer, R. (2014) Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory. Educational Psychology Review, 26, pp. 285–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-013-9242-2
 Sitzmann, T. (2011) A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Instructional Effectiveness of Computer-Based Simulation Games. Personnel Psychology, 64 (2), pp. 489–528. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01190.x
 Stewart, J., Van Kirk, J. and Rowell, R. (1979) Concept maps: A tool for use in biology teaching. American Biology Teacher, 41 (3), pp. 171–175. https://doi.org/10.2307/4446530
 Šisler, V. and Brom, C. (2008) Designing an Educational Game: Case Study of 'Europe 2045'. Transactions of Edutainment I, 5080, pp. 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69744-2_1
 Švaříček, R., Šeďová, K. and Šalamounová, Z. (2012) Komunikace ve školní třídě. Praha: Portál.
 Tobias, S. and Fletcher, D. (2011) Learning from Computer Games: A Research Review. In: Stefan De Wannemacker, Sylke Vandercruysse and Geraldine Clarebout (eds.). Serious Games: The Challenge. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33814-4_2
 Um, E. et al. (2012) Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104 (2), pp. 485–498. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026609
 Van Eck, R. (2006) Digital Game-Based Learning: It's Not Just Digital Natives Who Are Restless. Educause Review, 41 (2), pp. 16–30.
 Vosniadou, S. and Brewer, W. (1992) Mental models of the Earth: A study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24, pp. 535–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(92)90018-W
 Wouters, P. et al. (2013) A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology, Advance online publication, pp. 249–265. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031311
 Yun Soo, L., Yongkyu, J. and Minsoo, K. (2015) Validity and Responsiveness of Concept Map Assessment Scores in Physical Education. Physical Educator, 72 (2), pp. 206–223.
 Zwann, R. A and Radvansky, G. A. (1998) Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, pp. 162–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.123.2.162
Copyright (c) 2020 Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology