What Is an International Cybersecurity Regime and How We Can Achieve It?

Ilona Stadnik

Abstract

This article explores the two mainstream directions of debates about the possibility of establishing a kind of international cybersecurity regime. It develops the idea of different governance models based on sovereignty, on the one hand, and multistakeholderism on the other. The application of international relations theory helps to understand the current process and stalemate initiatives regarding state cooperation in this field. In addition, the author pays attention to the applicability of the constructivism framework to the understanding of cybersecurity threats and the elaboration of international norms applicable to cyberspace. Finally, the article concludes with the idea that the multistakeholder approach to norm-making may become a viable solution to the problem of constructing an international cybersecurity regime.

Keywords

Cybersecurity, Information Security, Sovereignty, Multistakeholderism, Regimes, Constructivism, Securitization

Full Text:

References

Show references Hide references

[1] Adler, E., Pouliot, V. (2011). International practices. International. Theory, 3, p. 136. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175297191000031X

[2] Adler-Nissen, R., Pouliot, V. (2014) Power in practice: Negotiating the international Intervention in Libya. European Journal of International Relations, 20, Issue 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354066113512702

[3] Axelrod, R. Keohane, R. (1986) Cooperation Under Anarchy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[4] Barlow, J. Electronic Frontier Foundation. (1996) a Declaration of the ndependence of Cyberspace. [record] 8 February, Davos. Available from: https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence [Accessed 15 March 2015].

[5] Buzan, B. (1991). Peoples, States and Fear: an Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

[6] Buzan, B., Waever, O. and De Wilde, J. (1998). Security: a New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

[7] Chang, A. (2014) Warring State: China’s Cybersecurity Strategy. [online] 3 December, Center for a New American Security. Available from: https://www.cnas.org/publications/reports/warring-state-chinas-cybersecurity-strategy [Accessed 10 February 2017].

[8] Clarke, R., Knake, R. (2010) Cyber War: the Next Threat to National Security and What to Do about It. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

[9] Clausewitz, C; Howard, M., Editor and translator; Paret, P., Editor and translator (1989) [1832]. on War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[10] Craig, A., Valeriano, B. (2016) Conceptualising Cyber Arms Races. In: N. Pissanidis, H.Rõigas, M.Veenendaal (Eds.) 8th International Conference on Cyber Conflict. Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

[11] Dartnell, M. (2003) Weapons of Mass Instruction: Web Activism and the Transformation of Global Security. Millennium, 32, Issue 3, pp. 477-499. https://doi.org/10.1177/03058298030320030701

[12] Drake, W. (2011) Multistakeholderism: Internal Limitations and External Limits. In: Wolfgang Kleinwächter (ed.) Discussion Paper Series No. 1, MIND #2 Internet Policy Making. Berlin-Nairobi: Internet and Society Co:llaboratory.

[13] Dunn Cavelty, M. (2013) From Cyber-Bombs to Political Fallout: Threat Representations with an Impact in the Cyber-Security Discourse. International Studies Review, 15, Issue 1, March. https://doi.org/10.1111/misr.12023

[14] Eichensehr, K. (2015) the Cyber-Law of Nations. Georgetown Law Journal, 317. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2447683 [Accessed 7 December 2016].

[15] Erskine, K., Carr, M. (2016) Beyond ‘Quasi-Norms’: the Challenges and Potential of Engaging with Norms in Cyberspace. In: Anna-Maria Osula and Henry Roigas (Eds.) International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives. Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications.

[16] Finnemore, M., Sikkink, K. (1998) International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52, Issue 4.

[17] Gartzke, E. (2013) the Myth of Cyber War. Bringing War in Cyberspace Back Down to Earth. International Security, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 41–73. https://doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00136

[18] Goldsmith, J. (1998) the Internet and the Abiding Significance of Territorial Sovereignty, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 5, Issue 2. Available from: http://www.repositorylaw.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1130&context=ijgls [Accessed 15 March 2015].

[19] Haggard, S., Simmons, B. (1987) Theories of international regimes. International Organization, 41, Issue 3, pp. 491- 517. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027569

[20] Hansen, L., Nissenbaum, H. (2009) Digital Disaster, Cyber Security, and the Copenhagen School. International Studies Quarterly, 53, Issue 4, pp. 1155-1575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2478.2009.00572.x

[21] International Telecommunications Union. (2012) WCIT-12 Final Acts. Dubai. Available from: www.itu.int/en/wcit-12/documents/final-acts-wcit-12.pdf [Accessed 19 April 2015].

[22] Johnson, D., Post, D. (1996) Law and Borders—The Rise of Law in Cyberspace, Stanford Law Review, 48, Available from: https://cyber.harvard.edu/is02/readings/johnson- post.html [Accessed 12 March 2015]. https://doi.org/10.2307/1229390

[23] Keohane, R. (1984) After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[24] Krasner, S. (1982) Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables. International Organization, 2, Issue 36, Spring, pp. 185-205. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300018920

[25] Krasner, S. (1983) International Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

[26] Kurbaljia, J. (2014) Introduction to Internet governance. 6th ed. Malta: DiploFoundation.

[27] Legro, J. (1997) Which Norms Matter? Revisiting the ‘Failure’ of Internationalism. International Organization, 51, Issue 1.

[28] Martin, L., Simmons, B. (1998) Theories and Empirical Studies of International Institutions. International Organization, 52, Issue 4, Autumn, pp. 729-757. https://doi.org/10.1162/002081898550734

[29] Mearsheimer, J. (1995) the False Promise of International Institutions. International Security, 19, Issue 3, Winter, pp. 5-49.

[30] National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. (1999) Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

[31] OSCE. (2016). Permanent Council Decision No. 1202. OSCE confidence-building measures to reduce the risks of conflict stemming from the use of information and communication technologies. Vienna. Available from: http://www.osce.org/pc/227281 [Accessed 10 February 2017].

[32] Raymond, M., DeNardis, L. (2015) Multistakeholderism: anatomy of an inchoate global institution. International Theory,7, Issue 3, November, pp. 572-616. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1752971915000081 [Accessed 3 July 2016].

[33] Rid, T. (2013) Cyber War Will Not Take Place. New York: Oxford University Press.

[34] Snidal, D. (1985) the limits of hegemonic stability theory. International Organization, 39, Issue 4, pp.579-614. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002081830002703X

[35] The Russian Government (2015) Soglashenie mezhdu Pravitel'stvom Rossijskoj Federacii I Pravitel'stvom Kitajskoj Narodnoj Respubliki o sotrudnichestve v oblasti obespecheni a mezhdunarodnoj informacionnoj bezopasnosti, Moscow. Available from: http://government.ru/media/files/5AMAccs7mSlXgbff1Ua785WwMWcABDJw.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2015].

[36] The Russian Government. (2016) Doktrina Informacionnoi Bezoasnosti. 5 December, Moscow. Available from: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41460 [Accessed 10 February 2017].

[37] The White House. (2011) the U.S. International Strategy for Cyberspace. Washington D.C. Available from: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2015].

[38] The White House. (2015). President Obama and President X joint statement on cybersecurity [press release], 25 September. Available from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/2015/09/25/fact-sheet-president-xi-jinpings-state-visit-united-states [Accessed 25 March 2015].

[39] Trautmann, C. (2011) Multistakeholderism needs fundamental and decisive legitimation. In: Wolfgang Kleinwächter (ed.) Discussion Paper Series No. 1, MIND #2 Internet Policy Making. Berlin-Nairobi: Internet and Society Co:llaboratory.

[40] U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011) United States and India Sign Cybersecurity Agreement. [press release], 19 July. Available from: https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=682137 [Accessed 25 March 2015].

[41] UK Government. (2015). UK-China Joint Statement on building a global comprehensive strategic partnership for the 21st Century. [press release], 22 October. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-china-joint-statement-2015 [Accessed 25 March 2015].

[42] United Nations General Assembly. (2011) Letter dated 12 September 2011 from the Permanent Representatives of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations. A/66/359. New York. Available from: http://undocs.org/A/66/359 [Accessed 15 March 2015].

[43] United Nations General Assembly. (2015) Letter dated 9 January 2015 from the Permanent Representatives of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations. A/69/723. New York. Available from: https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/documents/UN-150113-CodeOfConduct.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2015].

[44] United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Report of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security A/70/174. New York. Available from: https://documents-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N15/228/35/PDF/N1522835.pdf?OpenElement [Accessed 6 April 2016].

[45] Waltz, K. (1979) Theory of international politics. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley Pub. Co.

LIST OF DOCUMENTS FOR TAB. 2 AND TAB. 3


[1] SCO. (2009) Soglashenie mezhdu pravitelstvami gosudarstv - chlenov SHanhajskoj organizacii sotrudnichestva o sotrudnichestve v oblasti obespecheniya mezhdunarodnoj informacionnoj bezopasnosti. Availavlefrom: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902289626 [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[2] The Russian Council of Federation. (2013) Koncepciya strategii kiberbezopasnosti, Available from: http://council.gov.ru/media/files/41d4b3dfbdb25cea8a73.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[3] The Russian Ministry of Defense. (2011). Konceptualnye vzglyady na deyatelnost vooruzhennyh sil Rossijskoj Federacii v informacionnom prostranstve.

[4] The Russian Ministry of International Affairs. (2011). Convetion on International Information Security. Available from: http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/official_documents/-/asset_publisher/CptICkB6BZ29/content/id/191666p_p_id=101_INSTANCE_CptICkB6BZ29&_101_INSTANCE_CptICkB6BZ29_languageId=en_GB [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[5] The Russian President. (2009) O Strategii nacionalnoj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii do 2020 goda. Available from: http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102129631 [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[6] The Russian President. (2014) Voennaya doktrina Rossijskoj Federacii. Available from: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/47334 [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[7] The Russian President. (2015) Strategiya nacionalnoj bezopasnosti Rossijskoj Federacii. Available from: http://kremlin.ru/acts/news/51129 [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[8] The Russian President. (2015) Voennaya doktrina Rossijskoj Federacii. Available from:
http://kremlin.ru/supplement/461 [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[9] The Russian President. (2016) Doktrina Informacionnoi Bezoasnosti. 5 December, Moscow.
Availablefrom: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41460 [Accessed 10 February 2017].

[10] United Nations General Assembly. (2015) Letter dated 9 January 2015 from the Permanent Representatives of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan to the United Nations. A/69/723. New York. Available from: https://ccdcoe.org/sites/default/files/documents/UN-150113-CodeOfConduct.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[11] The US Department of Defense (2015). the DoD Cyber strategy. Available from: https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/features/2015/0415_cyberstrategy/Final_2015_DoD_CYBER_STRATEGY_for_web.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[12] The US Department of Homeland Security. (2003) the national strategy for secure cyberspace. Available from: https://www.dhs.gov/national-strategy-secure-cyberspace [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[13] The US Department of Homeland Security. (2009) Cyberspace policy review. Available from: https://www.dhs.gov/publication/2009-cyberspace-policy-review [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[14] The US Senate. (2014) Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community. Testimony of J. Clapper. 29 January, Washington. Available from: https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Intelligence%20Reports/2014%20WWTA%20%20SFR_SSCI_29_Jan.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[15] The US Senate. (2015) Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community. Testimony of J. Clapper. 26 February, Washington. Available from: https://www.dni.gov/index.php/newsroom/testimonies/209-congressional-testimonies-2015/1175-dni-clapper-opening-statement-on-the-worldwide-threat-assessment-before-the-senate-armed- services-committee [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[16] The White House (2010) National Security Strategy. Available from: http://nssarchive.us/national-security-strategy-2010/ [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[17] The White House. (2011) The U.S. International Strategy for Cyberspace. Washington D.C. Available from: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[18] China’s Central Military Commission (2014). Opinion on Further Strengthening Military Information Security Work.

[19] China’s National Informatization Leading Group. (2006) National Informatisation Development Strategy, 2006-2020.

[20] China’s State Informatization Leading Group. (2003) Opinions for Strengthening Information Security Assurance Work (“Document 27”). Available from: http://www.btpta.gov.cn/publish/portal7/tab550/info92345.htm [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[21] The Information Office of the State Council. (2013) White Paper: The Diversified Employment of China's Armed Forces. Available from: http://www.nti.org/media/pdfs/China_Defense_White_Paper_2013.pdf [Accessed 25 March 2016].

[22] The Information Office of the State Council. (2015) China's Military Strategy. Available from: http://eng.mod.gov.cn/Press/2015-05/26/content_4586805.htm [Accessed 25 March 2016].



https://doi.org/10.5817/MUJLT2017-1-7


Copyright (c) 2017 Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology