Public Provocation to Commit a Terrorist Offence: Balancing between the Liberties and the Security

Kristina Ramešová

Abstract

Modern terrorism is global and decentralized like cyberspace. While the Darknet is mostly used by terrorists for fundraising campaigns and illicit trading, publicly accessible social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook or YouTube are abused for terrorist propaganda. Combating terrorism remains one of the top priorities of the European union (hereinafter as “the EU”). The approach towards the online content possibly connected to terrorist propaganda has become stricter.

This paper focuses on the development of the EU legislation on the offence related to terrorist activities: the public provocation to commit a terrorist offence, as well as on the obligations of hosting service providers. It also analyses the impact of the Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA. The article observes a changing attitude on private monitoring of online information in the development of the EU legislation. It analyses changes in the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online. These changes signify a shift in the perception of the necessary level of freedom to receive and impart information through the internet.

Keywords

Dissemination of Terrorist Content Online; Hosting Service Providers; Provocation to Commit a Terrorist Offence; Terrorism

Full Text:

References

Show references Hide references

[1] Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism. Adopted by the Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior and the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice, 22 April 1998. Available from: http://www.unodc.org/images/tldb-f/conv_arab_terrorism.en.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[2] Barlow, J. P. (1990) Crime and Puzzlement: in advance of the law on the electronic frontier. Whole Earth Review.

[3] Barnhizer, D. R. (2007) Reverse Colonization: Islam, Honor Cultures and the Confrontation between Divine and Quasi-Secular Natural Law. Cleveland-Marshall Legal Studies Paper No. 07-142. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=980687 [Accessed 16 May 2020]. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.980687

[4] Broadhurst, R. et al. (2017) Cyber terrorism: research report of the Australian National University Cybercrime Observatory for the Korean Institute of Criminology. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2984101 or https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2984101 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[5] Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on combating terrorism and Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism. Official Journal of the European Union. Consolidated version available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02002F0475-20081209 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[6] Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, 16 May 2005. Available from: https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016808c3f55 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[7] Council of the EU. (2018) Terrorist Content Online: Council adopts negotiating position on new rules to prevent dissemination. [press release] 6 December. Available from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2018/12/06/terrorist-contentonline-council-adopts-negotiating-position-on-new-rules-to-prevent-dissemination/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[8] Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market. Official Journal of the European Union. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1549827901048&uri=CELEX:32000L0031 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[9] Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA. Official Journal of the European Union. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1549825019861&uri=CELEX:32017L0541 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[10] Draft Opinion of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection for the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online. (2018/0331 (COD)). Available from: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+COMPARL+PE-632.028+01+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[11] EDRI. (2018) The EU Council’s general approach on Terrorist Content Online proposal: A step towards pre-emptive censorship. [press release] 11 December. Available from: https://edri.org/the-eu-councils-general-approach-on-terrorist-content-online-proposal-a-steptowards-pre-emptive-censorship/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[12] European Commission. (2008) The Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52014DC0554 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[13] European Council. (2018) EU Counter-Terrorism Strategy. Available from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/fight-against-terrorism/eu-strategy/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[14] European Parliament legislative resolution of 17 April 2019 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online (COM(2018)0640 – C8-0405/2018 –2018/0331(COD)). Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/CS/TXT/?uri=EP:P8_TA(2019)0421 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[15] European Union. (2019) Interim and precautionary measures. European e-justice. [online] Available from: https://e-justice.europa.eu/content_interim_and_precautionary_measures-78-en.do?init=true [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[16] EUROPOL. (2016) Changes in Modus Operandi of Islamic State (IS) Revisited. Available from: https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/changes-in-modusoperandi-of-islamic-state-revisited [Accessed 16 May 2019].

[17] EUROPOL. (2019) Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA). Available from: https://www.europol.europa.eu/iocta-report [Accessed 16 May 2020]. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(19)30114-9

[18] EUROPOL. (2019) The European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2019. Available from: https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/terrorism-situation-and-trend-report-2019-te-sat [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[19] Facebook. (2016) Partnering to Help Curb Spread of Online Terrorist Content. [press release] 5 December. Available from: https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2016/12/partnering-to-helpcurb-spread-of-online-terrorist-content/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[20] Facebook. (2020) Facebook Q1 2020 Results. Investor Relations. [online] Available from: https://s21.q4cdn.com/399680738/files/doc_financials/2020/q1/Q1-2020-FB-Earnings-Presentation.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[21] GIFCT. Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism: Evolving an Institution. [online] Available from: https://gifct.org/about/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[22] Gross, O. (2018) Security vs. Liberty: An Imbalanced Balancing. Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 09-42. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1471634 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[23] Hilbert, M. and López, P. (2011) The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information. Science, 332 (6025). Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/332/6025/60 [Accessed 16 May 2020]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1200970

[24] Heinke, D. H. (2016) Countering Radicalisation and Recruitment of so-called Jihadists – Proscription of Radicalization Hubs. Defence Against Terrorism Revue, 8.

[25] Hunter, R. and Heinke, D. H. (2011) Radicalization of Islamist Terrorists in the Western World. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 9 (80). Available from: https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/perspective/perspective-radicalization-of-islamist-terrorists-in-the-western-world [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[26] Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law: Terrorism, Conspiracy, Homicide, Perpetration, Cumulative Charging. (2011) STL-11-01/1, Special Tribunal for Lebanon, 16 February 2011. Available from: https://www.refworld.org/cases,STL,4d6280162.html [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[27] Judgement of 31 January 2017, Lounani, C-573/14, ECLI:EU:C:2017:71.

[28] Lessig, L. and Resnick, P. (1999) Zoning Speech on the Internet: A Legal and Technical Model. Michigan Law Review. Available from: https://cyber.harvard.edu/wg_home/uploads/200/1999-06.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[29] National transposition measures communicated by the Member States concerning: Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/NIM/?uri=CELEX:32017L0541 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[30] Plous, S. (1993) The Psychology of Judgement and Decision Making. New York: McGraw-Hill.

[31] Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online (COM/2018/640 final). Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=COM:2018:0640:FIN [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[32] Rediker, E. (2015) The Incitement of Terrorism on the Internet: Legal Standards, Enforcement, and the Role of the European Union. Michigan Journal of International Law, 36 (2). Available from: https://repository.law.umich.edu/mjil/vol36/iss2/3/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[33] Sanyal, S. (2015) International Laws to Control Terrorism: A Comparative Study. AAKROSH Asian Journal on Terrorism and Internal Conflicts. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3232739 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[34] Shamieh, L. and Szenes, Z. (2015) The Propaganda of ISIS/DAESH through the Virtual Space. Defence Against Terrorism Revue, 7 (1). Available from: http://www.coedat.nato.int/publication/datr/volumes/datr10.pdf [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[35] The Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008 amending Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism (COM/2014/554 final). Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/elibrary/documents/policies/crisis-and-terrorism/general/docs/report_on_the_implementation_of_cfd_2008-919-jha_and_cfd_2002-475-jha_on_combating_terrorism_en.pdf [Accessed 4 June 2020].

[36] United Nations. (2019) New technologies, artificial intelligence aid fight against global terrorism. [press release] September 4. Available from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/09/1045562 [Accessed 16 May 2020].

[37] Waldron, J. (2011) Safety and Security. Nebraska Law Review, 85. Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/nlr/vol85/iss2/5/ [Accessed 16 May 2020].

https://doi.org/10.5817/MUJLT2020-1-6



Copyright (c) 2020 Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology