REPRESENTATIONS OF NATURE IN ECOTOURISM ADVERTISEMENTS

Vol.9,No.1(2016)

Abstract
Employing the appraisal theory and the system of transitivity, the study explores representations of nature and the human-nature relationship in ecotourism advertisements on the website Responsible Travel. It is revealed that a number of empowering discursive devices with regard to nature are employed in the data, including the allocation of the agentive role in constructive processes to inanimate natural elements, the adoption of the activation of tokens and the activation of experiences, and celebratory portrayals of nature as an aesthetically pleasing artwork and a spectacle of supernatural qualities. Yet, it is argued that the celebration and the empowerment of nature in the ecotourism advertisements tend to take place at the expense of the reproduction of the human-nature dichotomy, portraying nature as the Other.

Keywords:
ecotourism advertisements, human-nature relationship, appraisal theory, transitivity analysis, ecolinguistics
References

Acott, T. G., La Trobe, H. L. and Howard, S. H. (1998) ‘The evaluation of deep ecotourism
and shallow ecotourism.’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 6 (3), 238-253. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669589808667314


Boo, E. (1990) Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls. Washington: World Wildlife
Fund.


Buckley, R. (2001) ‘Tourism ecolabels.’ Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (1), 183-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00035-4


Buckley, R. (2003) Case Studies in Ecotourism. Oxon: Cabi Publishing.


Carrier, J. C. and Macleod, D. V. L. (2005) ‘Bursting the bubble: The socio-cultural
context of ecotourism.’ Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, 11, 315-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9655.2005.00238.x


Ceballos-Lascuráin, H. (2003) ‘Preface.’ In: Lück, M. and Kirstges, T. (eds) Global
Ecotourism Policies and Case Studies: Perspectives and Constraints Clevedon:
Channel View Publications. viii-xiii.


Dorsey E. R., Steeves, H. L. and Porras, L. E. (2004) ‘Advertising ecotourism on the
internet: Commodifying environment and culture.’ New Media and Society, 6 (6),
753-779. https://doi.org/10.1177/146144804044328


Dowling, R. K. and Fennell, D. A. (2003) ‘The context of ecotourism policy and planning.’
In: Fennell, D. A. and Dowling, R. K. (eds) Ecotourism Policy and Planning. Oxon:
Cabi Publishing. 1-20.


Fairclough, N. (1992) Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.


Fennell, D. A. (2003) Ecotourism: An Introduction. 2nd ed. London and New York:
Routledge.


Fill, A. and Mühlhäusler, P. (2001) ‘Introduction.’ In: Fill, A. and Mühlhäusler, P. (eds)
The Ecolinguistics Reader: Language, Ecology and Environment. London and New
York: Continuum. 1-9.


Goatly, A. (2000) Critical Reading and Writing: An Introductory Coursebook. London
and New York: Routledge.


Halliday, M. A. K. (1985) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward
Arnold.

Halliday, M. A. K. (2001) ‘New ways of meaning: The challenge to applied linguistics.’
In: Fill, A. and Mühlhäusler, P. (eds) The Ecolinguistics Reader: Language, Ecology
and Environment. London and New York: Continuum. 175-202.


Harré, R., Brockmeier, J. and Mühlhäuser, P. (1999) Greenspeak: A Study of Environmental
Discourse. Thousand Oaks: Sage.


Hawkes, D. (2003) Ideology. 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.


Krzyżanowski, M. and Forchtner, B. (2016) ‘Theories and concepts in critical discourse
studies: Facing challenges, moving beyond foundations.’ Discourse and Society, 27
(3), 253-261.


Martin, J. R. and White, P. R. R. (2005) The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in
English. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Russell, A. (2007) ‘Anthropology and ecotourism in European wetlands: Bubbles, babies
and bathwater.’ Tourist Studies, 7 (2), 225-244.


Stamou, A. G., Lefkaditou, A., Schizas, D. and Stamou, G. P. (2009) ‘The discourse of
environmental information: Representations of nature and forms of rhetoric in the
information center of a Greek reserve.’ Science Communication, 31 (2), 187-214. https://doi.org/10.1177/1075547009335347


Stamou, A. G. and Paraskevopoulos, S. (2004) ‘Images of nature by tourism and
environmentalist discourses in visitors books: A critical discourse analysis of
ecotourism.’ Discourse and Society, 15 (1), 105-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926504038948


The Ecologist. Online document: http://www.theecologist.org/, retrieved on 25 August
2015.


Thurlow, C. and Jaworski, A. (2010) Tourism Discourse: Language and Global Mobility.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Urry, J. (2002) The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. 2nd ed.
London: Sage.


Weiss, G. and Wodak, R. (eds) (2003) Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and
Interdisciplinarity. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (eds) (2009) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. 2nd ed.
London: Sage.


Wodak, R. (2009) ‘What CDA is about: A summary of its history, important concepts and
its developments.’ In: Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (eds) Methods of Critical Discourse
Analysis. 2nd ed. London: Sage. 1-13.

Metrics

520

Views

485

PDF views