Littoral phytocenoses of marshes located in different tidal conditions of the White Sea



This paper describes the distribution of plant communities from various associations, identified from the standpoint of the ecological-phytocenotic approach, occupying the tidal flat of low and medium marshes, which are under the influence of tide range, different values of pH and water salinity. According to the degree of pH influence, we identified acidotrophic, alkalotrophic, and indifferent phytocenoses, combined into different associations. Most associations of the estuaries with different tide range are alkalotrophic, there are noticeably fewer acidotrophic ones; a few eurytopic communities from the Phragmitetum australis, Bolboschoenetum maritimae, and Caricetum aquatilis associations are classified as indifferent. The study shows that the coastal vegetation of the marshes of the mesotidal estuaries of the White Sea develops in stable pH conditions in the range from 7.2 to 7.6. The formation of coastal vegetation is less stable in the macrotidal estuaries of the Mezen Bay, most of them form at pH = 7.0-8.3. Halophyte vegetation forms in the widest range of pH (6.2-8.3) in the marshes of microtidal estuaries in the Dvina Bay of the White Sea, which are more affected by floods than other estuaries. The halophytic vegetation of the White Sea develops in a wide range of salinity fluctuations from brackish to marine waters. However, the majority of plant associations in the rivers estuaries occupy the habitats of weakly saline waters with 10 to 25% salinity.

White Sea; littoral phytocenoses; estuaries; marshes; tides; salinity; pH

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