The Significance of Ethnography in Youth Participation Research: Active Citizenship in the UK after the Brexit Vote

Shakuntala Banaji, Sam Mejias, Benjamín de la Pava Vélez

Abstrakt

In comparison to questionnaires, statistical analyses, interviews and experiments,
ethnography tends to be a neglected method in youth participation research and in understanding political
socialization and citizen action. This, we suggest, is very unfortunate. Where the concerns and experiences
of researchers do not match those of young people, it is usually the young people’s perspectives which remain
outside the frameworks and conclusions. Drawing on original data and insights from two ethnographies
of youth active citizenship initiatives in the UK – My Life My Say and Momentum – collected during
a politically tumultuous 8-month period in 2017, this article argues that ethnography has several advantages
over other methods when it comes to understanding the depth and significance of youth civic participation
and its links to peer groups and emotions. We contend that critical and reflexive ethnographies allow scholars
and researchers to ask and probe young people’s perceptions, opinions, actions and behaviours through
the use of open-ended questions in settings where civic action is already taking place, thus triangulating
findings in natural settings and building a sense of how communities of practice and activism function.
In terms of ethics, voice and power, this ethnographic research approach gives young people more control
over their own narratives about participation and affiliation in specific political or civic settings than surveys
tend to do.

Klíčová slova

ethnography; youth active citizenship; brexit; civic participation; Momentum

Plný Text:

Mobi (English) EPUB (English)

Reference

Zobrazit literaturu Skrýt literaturu

Anderson, Digby. 1978. "Some Organisational Features of the Local Production of a Plausible Text". The Philosophy of the Social Sciences 8: 113-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/004839317800800201

Athens, Lonnie. 1984. "Scientific Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Studies". In Studies in Symbolic Interactionism, Volume 5, edited by N. Denzin. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Atkinson, Paul, Amanda Coffey, and Sara Delamont. 2011. "Ethnography: Post, Past, and Present". Pp. 461-471 in SAGE Qualitative Research Methods, edited by P. Atkinson and S. Delamont. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446263334

Becker, Howard. 1970. Sociological Work. Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.

Behar, Ruth and Deborah A. Gordon. 1995. Women Writing Culture. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Benedict, Ruth. 2005. Patterns of Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Berg, Bruce. 1998. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Boas, Franz. 1920. "The Methods of Ethnology". American Anthropologist. WileyAmerican Anthropological Association. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1920.22.4.02a00020

Bogden, Robert and Steven Jay Taylor. 1975. Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods. New York: Wiley.

Brewer, John D. 2000. Ethnography. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

Bulmer, Martin. 1984. The Chicago School of Sociology: Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Cammaerts, Bart., Brooks DeCillia, Joao Viera Magalhães, and Cesar Jiménez-Martínez. 2016. Journalistic Representations of Jeremy Corbyn in the British Press: From “Watchdog” to “Attackdog”. London. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917734055

Cicognani, Elvira, Davide Mazzoni, Cinzia Albanesi, and Bruna Zani. 2015. "Sense of Community and Empowerment Among Young People: Understanding Pathways from Civic Participation to Social Well-Being". VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 26(1): 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-014-9481-y

Clifford, James. and George Marcus. 1986. Writing Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dawson, Andrew , Jenny L. Hockey, and Allison James. 1997. After Writing Culture: Epistemology and Praxis in Contemporary Anthropology. London: Routledge.

Denzin, Norman and Yvonne Lincoln. 2005. "Entering the Field of Qualitative Research". In The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed., edited by N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln. London: Sage Publications.

Dey, Ian. 1993. Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Routledge.

Enslin, Elizabeth. 1994. "Beyond Writing: Feminist Practice and the Limitations of Ethnography". Cultural Anthropology 9(4): 537-568. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1994.9.4.02a00040

Escobar, Arturo. 1998. La invención del tercer mundo: Construcción y Deconstrucción del Desarrollo. Bogotá: Norma.

Fals Borda, Orlando. 1979. El problema de cómo investigar la realidad para transformarla. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo. https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780444239

Fals Borda, Orlando and Mohammad Anisur Rahman. 1991. Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action Research. New York: Apex Press.

Foley, Douglas and Angela Valenzuela. 2005. "Critical Ethnography: The Politics of Collaboration". Pp. 217-234 in The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed., edited by N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Freire, Paulo. 1990. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, new ed. Harmondworth: Penguin.

Galeano, Eduardo. 1992. We Say No: Chronicles, 1963-1991. New York: W. W. Norton.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books.

-------. 1989. Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Genova, Elena. 2016. "To Have Both Roots and Wings: Nested Identities in the Case of Bulgarian Students in the UK". Identities 23(4): 392-406. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2015.1024125

Glaser, BarneyG. and Anselm Leonard. Strauss. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.

Grimm, Robert and Hilary Pilkington. 2015. "'Loud and Proud': Youth and the Politics of Silencing". The Sociological Review 63(2_suppl): 206-230. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12269

Hammersley, Martin and Paul Atkinson. 2010. Ethnography: Principles in Practice. New York: Routledge.

Hansen, Judith. 1979. Sociocultural Perspectives on Human Learning: An Introduction to Educational Anthropology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Harris, Anita and Joshua Roose. 2014. "DIY Citizenship amongst Young Muslims: Experiences of the 'Ordinary'". Journal of Youth Studies 17(6): 794-813. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.844782

Hemment, Julie. 2007. "Public Anthropology and the Paradoxes of Participation: Participatory Action Research and Critical Ethnography in Provincial Russia". Human Organization 66(3): 301-314. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.66.3.p153144353wx7008

Hoskins, Bryony, Michaela Saisana, and Cynthia M.H. Villalba. 2015. "Civic Competence of Youth in Europe: Measuring Cross National Variation Through the Creation of a Composite Indicator". Social Indicators Research 123(2): 431-457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0746-z

Johnson, Sarah K., Jennifer P. Agans, Michelle B. Weiner, and Richard M. Lerner. 2014. "Profiles of Civic Engagement across Educational Transitions: Stability and Change". International Journal of Developmental Science 8(3-4): 81-93.

Koronaiou, Alexandra., Evangelos Lagos, Alexandros Sakellariou, Stellios Kymionis, and Irini Chiotaki-Poulou. 2015. "Golden Dawn, Austerity and Young People: The Rise of Fascist Extremism Among Young People in Contemporary Greek Society". The Sociological Review 63(2_suppl): 231-249. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12270

Kuhn, Thomas. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lamphere, Louise. 2003. "The Perils and Prospects for an Engaged Anthropology: A View From the United States". Social Anthropology 11(2): 153-168. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0964028203000120

Lappalainen, Sirpa. 2014. "Locality, Mobility and Labour Market Citizenship: Reflections of Finnish Vocational Students in Social Services and Health Care". Pedagogy, Culture & Society 22(3): 425-445. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2014.914966

Lassiter, LukeE. 2005a. "Collaborative Ethnography and Public Anthropology". Current Anthropology 46(1): 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1086/425658

-------. 2005b. The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

LeCompte, Margaret. and Judith P. Goetz. 1982. "Problems of Reliability and Validity in Ethnographic Research". Review of Educational Research 52(1): 31-60. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543052001031

Lofland, John. 1974. "Analysing Qualitative Data: First Person Accounts". Urban Life and Culture 3: 307-309. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124167400300304

Mahatmya, Duhita and Brenda J. Lohman. 2012. "Predictors and Pathways to Civic Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Neighborhood, Family, and School Influences". Journal of Youth and Adolescence 41(9): 1168-1183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9777-4

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1989. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Marr Maira, Sunaina. 2009. Missing: Youth, Citizenship, and Empire after 9/11. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822392385

Matza, David. 1969. Becoming Deviant. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Mbembé, Achille and Sarah. Nuttall. 2004. "Writing the World from an African Metropolis". Public Culture 16(3): 347-372. https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-16-3-347

Meuleman, Bram. and Corra. Boushel. 2014. "Hashtags, Ruling Relations and the Everyday: Institutional Ethnography Insights on Social Movements". Contemporary Social Science 9(1): 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2013.851410

Mignolo, Walter. 2011. The Darker Side of Western Modernity: Global Futures, Decolonial Options. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822394501

Mustafa, Anisa. 2016. "Active Citizenship, Dissent and Civic Consciousness: Young Muslims Redefining Citizenship on Their Own Terms". Identities 23(4): 454-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2015.1024127

Peacock, JamesL. 1997. "The Future of Anthropology". American Anthropologist 99(1): 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1997.99.1.9

Platt, Jennifer. 1981. "The Social Construction of 'Positivism' and its Significance in British Sociology". In Practive and Progress: British Sociology 1950-1980, edited by P. Abrams, R. Deem, J. Finch, and P. Rock. London: Allen and Unwin.

Ribeiro, Norberto, Carla M. Almeida, Maria. Fernandes-Jesus, Tiago Neves, Pedro D. Ferreira, and Isabel Menezes. 2012. "Education and Citizenship: Redemption or Disempowerment? A Study of Portuguese-Speaking Migrant (and Non-Migrant) Youth in Portugal". Power and Education 4(2): 207-218. https://doi.org/10.2304/power.2012.4.2.207

Ribeiro, Norberto, Carla M. Almeida, Maria Fernandes-Jesus, Tiago Neves, and Isabel Menezes. 2014. "Europe as a Beacon of Democracy? Citizenship Policies Relating to Youth and Migrants in Portugal". 1: 51-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/17448689.2014.895605

Santos, Boaventura De Sousa. 2010. Descolonizar el saber, reinventar el poder. Montevideo: Trilce ediciones.

Seale, Clive. 1999. The Quality of Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857020093

Skeggs, Beverley. 1994. "Situating the Production of Feminist Ethnography". In Researching Women’s Lives, edited by M. Maynard and J. Purvis. Basingstoke: Taylor & Francis.

Slavtcheva-Petkova, Vera and Sabina Mihelj. 2013. "Europe – A Default or a Dream? European Identity Formation among Bulgarian and English Children". Ethnicities 13(5): 565-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796812465722

Snell, Patricia. 2010. "Emerging Adult Civic and Political Disengagement: A Longitudinal Analysis of Lack of Involvement With Politics". Journal of Adolescent Research 25(2): 258-287. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558409357238

Van Maanen, John. 1988. Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Veloso, Luis. 2008. "Universal Citizens, Unequal Childhoods: Children’s Perspectives on Rights and Citizenship in Brazil". Latin American Perspectives 35(4): 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X08318978

Villarreal, María.C. 2015. Jóvenes indígenas y cultura política. CLACSO.

https://doi.org/10.5817/SOC2018-2-97