Comparison of Valuation of Financial Instruments according to the International and Czech Accounting Standards in the Context of Performance Reporting
The paper is devoted to a comparison of the valuation of financial instruments according to the international and Czech accounting standards in the context of performance reporting of trade corporations. Differences in valuation and reporting of financial instruments are examined in connection with the upcoming amendments to the international accounting standards, which are currently the subject of scientific and expert discussions. The research focused on the comparison of classification methods of financial instruments according to the international and Czech standards and the resultant methods of recognition, valuation and reporting with the aim of identifying possible differences. The research arrived at the discovery of what causes the differences and the assessment of their impact on the financial statements of trade corporations. A different concept of accruals on long-term receivables and variant calculations of present value affected the amount of the reported balance sheet as well as performance. Calculations of specific values of differences in financial instruments are made in two model examples in the categories Held-to-maturity investments (HTMI) and Loans and receivables (L&R), both from the viewpoint of owners, as well as from the perspective of debtors. The development of these differences in time is described graphically. The differences in the reported values manifested themselves in overvaluation or undervaluation during the life of the financial instrument, but the values were identical at the time of their maturity. It has been proved that differences between the reported financial situation and the performance of trade corporations persist even after the amendment to the Czech accounting legislation, and it is necessary to take them into account in financial analysis.
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