Myslet s virem

Antropologie v době pandemie

Roč.14,č.2(2023)
Anthropologia integra

Abstrakt

V tomto příspěvku je čtenáři předloženo k úvaze to, že k projasnění analýz důvodů vzniku pandemie nákazy Covid-19 lze využít recentní antropologická zkoumání komplexních interakcí mezi lidmi a zvířaty. Tyto vztahy jsou intimní a nepředvídatelné; mezi entitami, jejichž cíle a způsoby existence nejsou vždy přesně identifikovatelné. Předložena je též představa, že nahlížení těchto vztahů z „more-than-human“ pohledu doplňuje ideu, že my lidé s určitými živočišnými druhy vytváříme specifické mezidruhové vztahy založené na našich odlišnostech. Tyto vztahy jsou navíc konfigurovány metaforicky, což nám umožňuje vnímat mnohočetné a složité způsoby, jakými žijeme své životy v souvislosti s přirozenou a přírodní povahou všeho, co nás obklopuje. Nabízí se, že právě takové události jako je vznik a rozšíření SARS-CoV-2 dávají možnost k reflexi nad těmito mezidruhovými vztahy zvláště vědcům zabývajícím se interdisciplinárním výzkumem zvířecí říše, tzv. Animal Studies. Zásadní je uvědomit si, že úzce vymezené studium jen těch aspektů, které jsou považovány za zvířecí, je silně limitující a je potřeba rozšířit záběr i do sféry studia a také hledání odpovědí na důsledky našeho jednání vůči non-humánním entitám. Náprava vztahů mezi lidmi a jejich non-humánními protějšky je nahlížena v kontextu přežití a toho, co je k přežití potřebné a dostupné. Tyto souvislosti zohledňují přístup a využití dostupných zdrojů a jejich nerovnoměrné distribuci ve světě. S antropologickou perspektivou je pak možné se ptát, jak současně řešit otázky moci a marginality v kontextu kapitalismu a globalizace, nahlížet lidi a zvířata jako vzájemně se doprovázející druhy a využít výhody poznání žitého světa viděného.


Klíčová slova:
Animal Studies; antropologie; covid-19; pandemie; virus
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